Narconon

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Ir a la navegación Ir a la búsqueda

Narconon International (comúnmente conocido como Narconon) es una organización de la cienciología que promueve las teorías del fundador L. Ronald Hubbard sobre el tratamiento del abuso de sustancias y la adicción. Su compañía matriz es la Asociación para la Mejora de la Vida y la Educación (Association for Better Living and Education, ABLE), que pertenece y está controlada por la Iglesia de la Cienciología,[1][2][3][4]​ Con su cuartel general en Hollywood, California, Estados Unidos,[5]​ a la cual Narconon proporciona el 10% de su beneficio bruto,[6]​ Narconon opera varias docenas de centros residenciales en todo el mundo, principalmente en los Estados Unidos, México y Europa. La organización se formó en 1966 por el cienciólogo William Benítez con la ayuda de Hubbard. Benítez contactó con Hubbard después de leer su libro «Cienciología: los fundamentos del pensamiento» («Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought») y Narconon fue incorporada posteriormente.[7]

Mientras que tanto la Iglesia de la Cienciología como Narconon afirman que Narconon es un programa secular independiente de la cienciología,[8]​ y que proporciona educación y rehabilitación legítimas sobre drogas,[9][10]​ Narconon ha sido descrito por algunos informes gubernamentales y por antiguos pacientes como una organización pantalla de la cienciología.[11][12][13][14][15]

El programa ha generado considerable controversia como resultado de sus orígenes en la cienciología[11][16][17]​ y de sus métodos. Su tratamiento de rehabilitación de drogas ha sido descrito como "médicamente inseguro",[18]​ "curanderismo"[19][20][21]​ y como "fraude médico",[22]​ mientras que los expertos académicos y médicos han descartado su programa educativo por contener "errores de hecho en conceptos básicos como efectos físicos y mentales, adicción e incluso ortografía".[23]

Los escritos de Hubbard, que subyacen al programa, afirman que las drogas y sus metabolitos se almacenan en el tejido graso del cuerpo, causando los antojos del adicto cuando se liberan parcialmente más adelante, y que pueden eliminarse mediante un régimen conocido como Descarga de Purificación, que implica ejercicio, sauna y la ingesta de altas dosis de vitaminas.[24]​ Esta hipótesis está en contradicción con la evidencia experimental y no es aceptada médicamente.[25][26][27][28][29][30]

Historia[editar]

Origen[editar]

Narconon fue establecida el 19 de febrero de 1966 como un programa de rehabilitación de drogadictos basado en el libro «Cienciología: los fundamentos del pensamiento» de L. Ron Hubbard ofrecido a los toxicómanos de las prisiones estatales de Arizona. El nombre "Narconon" originalmente no hacía referencia a una organización sino a un programa.

El creador de Narconon fue William C. Benítez, un antiguo interno de una Prisión Estatal de Arizona que había cumplido condena por delitos de narcóticos.[31]​ Su obra fue apoyada por el fundador de la cienciología L. Ron Hubbard, y en 1972 Hubbard financió la incorporación de Narconon como una organización.[32]​ Fue cofundada por Benítez y por dos cienciólogos, Henning Heldt y Arthur Maren.

Antes del establecimiento de Narconon, la cienciología y la dianética fueron promovidas como proveedoras de una cura para la drogadicción. En 1970 el reverendo John W. Elliot, ministro senior de la Iglesia de la cienciología y encargado de su Equipo de Prevención de Abuso de Drogas, anunció que el "asesoramiento dianético" había "curado completamente a 30 de 30 personas" que vinieron a la Iglesia de la Cienciología pidiendo ayuda. El reverendo Elliott también reportó que la dianética podía curar la fiebre del heno, el asma y la artritis.[33]

En los primeros días de Narconon, no se hacía distinción entre las ramas "religiosas" y "seculares" de la cienciología; Narconon fue considerada por los cienciólogos como un ejemplo de la cienciología en acción. "Narconon, con el programa de la cienciología, es otro ejemplo de la viabilidad de la dianética y la cienciología", dijo un adherido en 1970. "El programa se ha ampliado y se utiliza en todas las iglesias y misiones de la cienciología".[34]

El sitio web de Narconon informa que la nota clave de Narconon es que "[...] el individuo es responsable de su propia condición y que cualquiera puede mejorar su condición si se le da una manera viable de hacerlo [...] el hombre es básicamente bueno y es el dolor, el sufrimiento, y la pérdida lo que lo lleva por mal camino". Sitúa al programa como enfocado a la rehabilitación sin recurrir a medicamentos alternativos. Sin embargo, este programa inicial no abordaba directamente los síntomas de abstinencia. En 1973, el programa Narconon adoptó procedimientos para incluir el retiro sin drogas.[32]

Siglo XXI[editar]

Varias celebridades han atestiguado públicamente que Narconon fue útil en sus propias vidas. El músico Nicky Hopkins y la actriz Kirstie Alley han atribuido a Narconon su recuperación de la adicción a las drogas y el alcohol.[35]​ Desde entonces, Alley se convirtió en portavoz público de Narconon. El Proyecto de Desintoxicación de los Trabajadores de Rescate de Nueva York ha usado el régimen de desintoxicación con sauna de Hubbard en un esfuerzo por mejorar la salud de los trabajadores de rescate expuestos a sustancias tóxicas el 11 de septiembre de 2001, aunque los resultados están en disputa.[36][37][38]​ El toxicólogo Dr. Ronald E. Gots describió el Programa de Descarga de Purificación de Narconon en un informe de 1987 sobre su uso para los bomberos de California:

El tratamiento en California aprovechó los temores de los trabajadores preocupados, pero no cumplió una función médica racional. […] Además, el programa en sí, desarrollado no por médicos o científicos, sino por el fundador de la Iglesia de la Cienciología, no tiene un valor reconocido en la comunidad médica y científica establecida. Es curanderismo.[39]

En 2004 y 2005, la revista «World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) at Work» e «International Scientology News» publicaron artículos clarificación la relación entre Narconon y la cienciología; situaron a Narconon en la "División 6B" de la cienciología, con la responsabilidad de dar a conocer al público los servicios de la cienciología.[40][41]

A finales de 2005, según la Asociación Internacional de Cienciólogos (International Association of Scientologists), Narconon operaba 183 centros de rehabilitación por todo el mundo. Entre los nuevos centros abiertos ese año estaban el de Hastings, RU (actualmente cerrado) y el de Stone Hawk, en Battle Creek, Míchigan, EE. UU..[42]​ El presidente de Narconon Clark Carr afirmó que las conferencias para la prevención de drogas "han sido dadas a más de 2 millones de niños y adultos a lo largo de varias décadas […] y que actualmente son ofrecidas a lo largo de los Estados Unidos, en todos los estados de Nueva Inglaterra, Washington D. C., Georgia, Florida, Oklahoma y los estados circundantes, Míchigan e Illinois, Texas, Nuevo México, Idaho, California, Nevada, Hawái y posiblemente otros" en respuesta a una investigación de «The Humanist».[43]

En 2005 Tom Cruise le dijo a un periodista alemán que la cienciología tenía el único programa de rehabilitación de drogas exitoso, Narconon, pero el periodista le respondió que no era un programa de desintoxicación reconocido.[44][45]

El 17 de julio de 2006, el Centro de Narconon de Trois-Rivieres (Tres Ríos) de Canadá empezó un sitio web en narcodex.ca.[46][47]​ Narcodex era una wiki para alojar información sobre drogas. El dominio del sitio web Narcodex.ca pertenecía a ABLE Canadá, otra organización de la Cienciología. Los fondos para el sitio web procedían de Narconon Trois-Rivieres, el cual también controlaba el contenido del sitio web.[48]​ El centro fue cerrado por las autoridades sanitarias locales en 2012.[49]

En julio de 2013, Narconon adquirió 150 acres en Hockley, Ontario, propiedad de Donald Blenkarn, el cual había fallecido el año anterior. Narconon planeó convertir la propiedad en un centro de rehabilitación de drogas y alcohol, pero esto causó un rechazo generalizado entre los residentes de la zona, criticando el centro de rehabilitación, la presencia de Narconon, y en especial de la cienciología.[50]​ La familia Blenkarn decidió finalmente elegir vendérsela a una persona no identificada de la comunidad, a un precio inferior al precio estándar de venta, y rechazó la contra oferta de Narconon.[51]

En enero de 2014, Narconon instituyó un programa de desintoxicación basado en Hubbard en Annapolis para tratar a veteranos que sufrían por las consecuencias de la Guerra del Golfo. Los tratamientos fueron financiados por el Departamento de Defensa de los EE. UU. A través de una subvención de septiembre de 2010 por 633,677 dólares otorgados a la Universidad de Albany en el Estado de Nueva York, donde David O. Carpenter es el director del instituto de la facultad para la Salud y el Medio Ambiente y el investigador principal del programa. En diciembre de 2014, siete veteranos de la Guerra del Golfo completaron el programa. Se administró en un horario de 7 días por semana, y el régimen se completó en 33 días. El propósito del programa era descubrir si el programa de Hubbard tiene una base científica para la terapia y si era eficaz para reducir los síntomas y mejorar el estado funcional de los veteranos de la Guerra del Golfo cuyo dolor físico y ansiedad mejoraron al finalizar el programa. Carpenter afirmó que el programa fue efectivo en su propio tratamiento.[52][53][54]

Narconon y cienciología[editar]

Como organización pantalla de la cienciología,[55]​ Narconon ha atraído las protestas de anti-cienciólogos.

Su afiliación a la Iglesia de la Cienciología ha hecho de Narconon objeto de controversia.[56]

En sus primeros días, Narconon utilizó materiales de la cienciología inalterados en sus cursos, y los ejecutivos de la cienciología dirigieron la organización (los fundadores Heldt y Maren eran miembros de alto rango del departamento de relaciones públicas de la Iglesia conocido como la Oficina del Guardián).[57]

En abril de 1970, el portavoz de la cienciología, Max Prudente, describió a Narconon como "Basada únicamente en la filosofía y los principios de la cienciología".[11]

A medida que Narconon promovió sus servicios de tratamiento de drogas a una variedad de jurisdicciones gubernamentales dentro de los EE. UU., la organización se encontró repetidamente en el centro de la controversia cuando la conexión con la cienciología fue planteada por periodistas o políticos.[58][59]

Estos problemas se intensificaron aún más por las afirmaciones de que el programa de tratamiento no era médicamente adecuado y las numerosas denuncias de que el programa de tratamiento de Narconon sirve como un programa de recaudación de fondos y reclutamiento para la Iglesia de la Cienciología.[60][61]

A fines de la década de 1970, la Iglesia de la Cienciología deseaba negar su conexión con Narconon. Cuando el FBI entró en las oficinas de la Iglesia de la Cienciología el 8 de julio de 1977, los documentos incautados revelaron que los cienciólogos recibieron instrucciones de referirse a Narconon y otras "grupos pantalla" usando nombres en clave:

Deberían usarse códigos para los nombres de los grupos pantalla que no queremos que se conecten con la I de la C y para cualquier cosa que de una evidencia específica y actual de que la I de la C está en control legal de los grupos B6 [entre los cuales está Narconon][55]

En 1994 John Wood, encargado de Narconon RU, negó cualquier conexión entre Narconon y la cienciología, diciendo: "Yo se sin lugar a dudas que Narconon no recluta ni promueve a la Iglesia de la Cienciología", a pesar de que la etapa final en el proceso de Narconon para pacientes en ese momento era "dirigirse a la organización más cercana (de la cienciología) para más servicios".[62]​ En 2001 el portavoz de la Cienciología Graeme Wilson describió a Narconon como "caridad afiliada" a la cienciología.[63]

Una serie del 1 al 5 de marzo de 1998 del «Boston Herald» expuso cómo dos grupos vinculados con la cienciología, Narconon y la Cruzada Mundial por el Alfabetismo (World Literacy Crusade) utilizó programas antidrogas y de alfabetización para obtener acceso a las escuelas públicas sin revelar sus lazos con la cienciología.[64]Heber Jentzsch, presidente de Iglesia de la Cienciología Internacional (Church of Scientology International), el cual dijo en una entrevista que la Descarga de Purificación salvó su vida,[65]​ confirmado después de que se publicó el informe «Boston Herald» que el bufete de abogados de la iglesia de Los Ángeles había contratado una firma de investigación privada para investigar la vida personal del periodista Joseph Mallia, quien escribió la serie. El «Boston Herald» señaló otros numerosos casos a lo largo de los años donde los periodistas fueron acosados ​​con "investigaciones ruidosas" después de escribir historias exponiendo a la cienciología.[65]

En Montreal, los empleados de Narconon se describen a sí mismos como FSM, una abreviación de la cienciología para Miembros del Personal de Campo (Field Staff Member, FSM),[66]​ mientras que en Georgia, EE. UU., un memorando publicado por orden judicial mostró que la directora ejecutiva de Narconon, Mary Rieser, informaba directamente a la Oficina de Asuntos Especiales de la Iglesia de la Cienciología.[67]​ así como a la organización matriz ABLE.

Programa de rehabilitación de drogas[editar]

Narconon enseña que las drogas residen en la grasa del cuerpo y que permanecen ahí indefinidamente;[68]​ y que para recuperarse del abuso de drogas, los adictos pueden eliminar las drogas de su grasa a través de las saunas y el uso de vitaminas. Los expertos médicos no están de acuerdo con esta comprensión básica de la fisiología, diciendo que no se almacena una cantidad significativa de drogas en la grasa, y que las drogas no se pueden "sudar" como afirma Narconon.[68]​ En un informe de 2005, los expertos científicos declararon que los métodos de tratamiento de Narconon "no reflejan evidencia médica y científica precisa y ampliamente aceptada".[68]

David Root, un profesional de medicina ocupacional y miembro de la Junta Asesora Científica de Narconon, defendió la validez del programa. Le dijo al «San Francisco Chronicle» en 1991 que las drogas y otros venenos "salen a través de la piel en forma de sudor sebáceo o graso". El material es frecuentemente visible y gotea, o se frota sobre toallas". Aparentemente, esto explica la necesidad de "dosis diarias de vitaminas, minerales y aceites, incluida la niacina".[69]

Cada paciente estadounidense pasa un promedio de 3 a 4 meses en Narconon, por una tarifa que oscila entre los 10,000 y alrededor de los 30,000 dólares.[70]

Hay más de 200 camas en el centro de Narconon de Arrowhead, EE. UU., según John Bitinas, quien forma parte del personal de relaciones públicas de la instalación. Cuando se le preguntó si los medicamentos se usan para ayudar a los pacientes que pasan por la abstinencia, dijo que "Narconon no contiene medicamentos, lo que significa que no usamos medicamentos sustitutos como parte de nuestro proceso de rehabilitación". Todos los pacientes son evaluados al momento de la inscripción para determinar si están "calificados psiquiátricamente o médicamente para el nivel de atención que ofrecemos aquí. Si se determina que necesitan un nivel de atención más alto, entonces Narconon está calificado para ofrecerla en ese momento, se los deriva a una instalación más apropiada". Si los pacientes requieren medicamentos para tratar afecciones físicas como diabetes, infecciones, etc., esos medicamentos son recetados por el médico de Narconon, que es a tiempo parcial pero está disponible de guardia las 24 horas, según Bitinas.[71]

Narconon en España[editar]

La organización tiene dos centros en España: Los Molinos, en Los Molinos, Comunidad de Madrid; y Mediterráneo, en Alcalá de Guadaira, provincia de Sevilla.

Enlaces externos[editar]

Referencias[editar]

  1. Phillip Charles Lucas; Thomas Robbins, eds. (2004). New Religious Movements in the Twenty-First Century: Legal, Political, and Social Challenges in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 376. ISBN 9781135889012. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. 
  2. «Narconon of Oklahoma, Inc Credentials». Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. 
  3. «10 News Investigators: Is the Narconon drug treatment program a Scientology front?». Archivado desde el original el 20 de marzo de 2014. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014.  |archive-url= y |urlarchivo= redundantes (ayuda); |archive-date= y |fechaarchivo= redundantes (ayuda)
  4. Duff, John S.; Clark Carr (21 de septiembre de 1996). «Healing drug and alcohol addiction in the family». New York Amsterdam News. p. 24. 
  5. «Narconon International Contact Info». Narconon. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2010. , "Narconon International 4652 Hollywood Boulevard Hollywood, CA 90027."
  6. «Narconon license agreement». Narconon International. Association for Better Living and Education. Archivado desde el original el 15 de julio de 2004. 
  7. Reitman, Janet (2011). «The Celebrity Strategy». Inside Scientology. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 257. ISBN 978-0618883028. «The use of social reform groups to spread L. Ron Hubbard's ideas had long been an integral part of Scientology, and was in fact one of the original objectives of the Guardian's Office. Since the late 1960s, the church has disseminated its philosophy through a number of organizations with hidden ties to Scientology, notably Narconon, a program that treats drug addiction and promotes Hubbard's holistic detoxification regimen, the Purification Rundown.» 
  8. Rachel Mendleson (2 de septiembre de 2013). «Narconon meets fierce opposition in Hockley Valley». Toronto Star Newspapers. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. 
  9. Bromley, David G. (1999). «Scientology, Church of». En Wade Clark Roof, ed. Contemporary American Religion 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 648-650. 
  10. «Narconon and Scientology». Consultado el 24 de octubre de 2013. 
  11. a b c «Scientology Presents Narconon Program». Westlake Post. 30 de abril de 1970. «"The conference presented current programs effective in alleviating drug problems. No program which employs drug or electric shock therapy was presented, as it has been discovered that groups which condone these techniques have only been pretending to be effective in drug rehabilitation", said Max Prudente, Scientology spokesman. ... "Based solely on the philosophy and tenets of Scientology, the applied religious philosophy, this program has achieved new and dramatic breakthroughs in the field of drug rehabilitation. Its nearly 85% success ratio has earned high praise from Governors, state and federal officials and correction authorities across the U.S., " Prudente said.» 
  12. «Drugs charity is front for 'dangerous' organisation; Insight; Focus». Sunday Times. 7 de enero de 2007. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. «Narconon's international website claims: "The ministry of health in England (sic) has also directly funded Narconon residential rehabilitation." But the Department of Health denies any knowledge of this. ... Professor Stephen Kent, a Canadian academic who is an authority on Scientology, said: "The connection between Narconon and Scientology is solid. Of course, Scientology tries to get non-Scientologists involved in the programme, but the engine behind the programme is Scientology." ... The British government expressed concern about Narconon as long as eight years ago. A 1998 memo from the Home Office's drug strategy unit warned that the charity had its "roots in the Church of Scientology and (is) not in the mainstream of drug rehabilitation". Tower Hamlets council in east London advises its schools against using Narconon. DrugScope, one of the UK's main drug charities, said: "We feel that the quality of Narconon's information is not objective and non-judgmental. It does not have any credibility." Stephen Shaw, the prisons ombudsman, advised that inmates in British jails should not receive drug education from Narconon because it is so "closely associated with the Church of Scientology".» 
  13. Malcolm Knox (September 2009). «Only Itself to Blame: The Church of Scientology». The Monthly. Consultado el 14 de septiembre de 2012. «Though a master in using the media and the courts to protect and project its image, Scientology has not always been so ostentatious in its proselytising. The church is an umbrella for subsidiary groups, such as ... Narconon... these groups have been criticised for appearing at Australian schools, community open days, and even having police distribute their material, without declaring their Scientology background. In January 2007, NSW police withdrew anti-drug pamphlets from stations in the Hunter region when it was discovered they were provided by Scientologists. ... Drug Free Ambassadors were handing out their pamphlets on the Gold Coast last ‘schoolies’ week’». 
  14. Behar, Richard (6 May 1991). «Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power». Time. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. «DRUG TREATMENT. Hubbard's purification treatments are the mainstay of Narconon, a Scientology-run chain of 33 alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers -- some in prisons under the name "Criminon" -- in 12 countries. Narconon, a classic vehicle for drawing addicts into the cult, now plans to open what it calls the world's largest treatment center, a 1,400-bed facility on an Indian reservation near Newkirk, Okla. (pop. 2,400). At a 1989 ceremony in Newkirk, the Association for Better Living and Education presented Narconon a check for $200,000 and a study praising its work. The association turned out to be part of Scientology itself. Today the town is battling to keep out the cult, which has fought back through such tactics as sending private detectives to snoop on the mayor and the local newspaper publisher.» 
  15. «What Germans think about their Narconon». Der Spiegel. 21 de octubre de 1991. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. «The enterprising Scientology sect increases its profits thanks to the misery of addicts. The cover organization, Narconon, offers drug rehabilitation therapy that, in the opinion of experts and doctors in the field, is not only useless but also dangerous. ... Narconon closely follows the motto of the Scientology sect's founder, Lafayette Ron Hubbard, who died in 1986 at the age of 74. The discoverer of this pseudo-scientific hocus pocus, gave this advice: Make money, make more money, make other people make money. The disciples at Narconon follow this order. It is officially an independent subsidiary of Scientology. The Scientologists have developed countless supposedly humanitarian initiatives around their church. One example is the commission for the violations of psychiatry against human rights. Another is the organization for the furthering of religious tolerance and interhuman relations. In fact all these activities, like the drug rehabilitation program, are only to further the fame and increase the paying followers of the sect.» 
  16. «The Four Basic Social Programs». The Hawaiian-American. 17 de diciembre de 1975. Consultado el 6 de septiembre de 2012. «We talked with Rev. Diana Harris, Pastor of the Church of Scientology of Hawaii ... and she gave us a complete background on the church's social programs for those in need in our community. ... Another community program the church offers is Narconon - a program designed to assist persons to get off drugs and to keep off drugs. The program was utilized in Oahu State Prison for a while and enjoyed a very high rate of success, according to Pastor Harris. They [Scientology] have been asked to consider re-introducing the program to the prison at a later date.» 
  17. «NARCONON to give awards». The Phoenix Gazette. 19 May 1970. Consultado el 6 de septiembre de 2012. «General information regarding the technology of Scientology, upon which NARCONON is based, can be secured from the Institute of Applied Philosophy». 
  18. Farley, Robert (30 de marzo de 2003). «Detox center seeks acceptance». St Petersburg Times. «When Narconon opened its Chilocco facility in 1991, the Oklahoma Board of Mental Health issued a blistering assessment in denying its application for certification. "There is no credible evidence establishing the effectiveness of the Narconon program to its patients," the board concluded. It attacked the program as medically unsafe; dismissed the sauna program as unproven; and criticized Narconon for inappropriately taking some patients off prescribed psychiatric medication.» 
  19. Kyle Smith (20 de abril de 2007). «DON'T BE TRICKED BY $CI-FI TOM-FOOLERY». New York Post. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. «Those who want a tan from his celebrity glow will urge a fair hearing for his quackery. Obscure City Councilman Hiram Monserrate suddenly finds himself talked about after issuing a proclamation of huzzahs for L. Ron Hubbard. Three: The Ground Zero maladies are so baffling that workers will try anything. Anyone who feels better will credit any placebo at hand - whether Cruise or the Easter Bunny. In 1991, Time called Scientology's anti-drug program "Narconon" a "vehicle for drawing addicts into the cult" - which the magazine said "invented hundreds of goods and services for which members are urged to give up 'donations' " - such as $1,250 for advice on "moving swiftly up the Bridge" of enlightenment. That's New Age techno-gobbledygook for advice on buying swiftly up the Bridge of Brooklyn. Scientology fronts such as the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project - its Web site immediately recognizable as the work of Hubbardites by its logo, which looks like the cover of a Robert Heinlein paperback from 1971 - hint that their gimmicks might possibly interest anyone dreaming of weight loss, higher I.Q. or freedom from addiction. And you might be extra-specially interested if you've faced heart disease, cancer, Agent Orange or Chernobyl. As Mayor Bloomberg put it, Scientology "is not science." Nope. It's science fiction.» 
  20. Robert W. Welkos; Joel Sappell (27 de junio de 1990). «Church Seeks Influence in Schools, Business, Science». Los Angeles Times. Archivado desde el original el 23 de octubre de 2012. Consultado el 13 de septiembre de 2012. «A fourth article did not mention Hubbard by name, but reported favorably on Narconon, his drug and alcohol rehabilitation program, which is run by Scientologists.» 
  21. «30 arrested in Paris crackdown on Scientologists». Agence France-Presse. 14 de enero de 1992. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2014. «About 30 Scientologists were arrested -- and 19 of them later indicted -- between May and October 1990 on charges of fraud, conspiracy to defraud and the illegal practice of medicine following the 1988 suicide of a church member in Lyon, eastern France. ... The sect has often found itself in trouble with officialdom the world over, accused of defrauding and brainwashing followers and, in France, of quackery at its illegal anti-drug clinics called "Narconon."». 
  22. Abgrall, Jean-Marie (2001). Healing Or Stealing?: Medical Charlatans in the New Age. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-892941-51-0. Consultado el 24 de septiembre de 2012. «Narconon, a subsidiary of Scientology, and the association “Yes to Life, No to Drugs” have also made a specialty of the fight against drugs and treating drug addicts. ... Drug addicts are just one of the Scientologists’ targets for recruitment. The offer of care and healing through techniques derived from dianetics is only a come-on. The detoxification of the patient by means of “dianetics purification” is more a matter of manipulation, through the general weakening that it causes; it is a way of brainwashing the subject. Frequently convicted for illegal practice of medicine, violence, fraud and slander, the Scientologists have more and more trouble getting people to accept their techniques as effective health measures, as they like to claim. They recommend their purification processes to eliminate X-rays and nuclear radiation, and to treat goiter and warts, hypertension and psoriasis, hemorrhoids and myopia. . . why would anyone find that hard to swallow? Scientology has built a library of several hundreds of volumes of writings exalting the effects of purification, and its disciples spew propaganda based on irresponsible medical writings by doctors who are more interested in the support provided by Scientology than in their patients’ well-being. On the other hand, responsible scientific reviews have long since “eliminated” dianetics and purification from the lists of therapies — relegating them to the great bazaar of medical fraud. ... Medical charlatans do not base their claims on scientific proof but, quite to the contrary, on peremptory assertions — the kind of assertions that they challenge when they come out of the mouths of those who defend “real” medicine.»  Parámetro desconocido |url-access= ignorado (ayuda)
  23. Asimov, Nanette (2 de octubre de 2004). «Church's drug program flunks S.F. test / Panel of experts finds Scientology's Narconon lectures outdated, inaccurate». San Francisco Chronicle. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «The program, Narconon Drug Prevention & Education, "often exemplifies the outdated, non-evidence-based and sometimes factually inaccurate approach, which has not served students well for decades," concluded Steve Heilig, director of health and education for the San Francisco Medical Society. In his letter to Trish Bascom, director of health programs for the San Francisco Unified School District, Heilig said five independent experts in the field of drug abuse had helped him evaluate Narconon's curriculum. ... "One of our reviewers opined that 'this (curriculum) reads like a high school science paper pieced together from the Internet, and not very well at that,' " Heilig wrote Bascom. "Another wrote that 'my comments will be brief, as this proposal hardly merits detailed analysis.' Another stated, 'As a parent, I would not want my child to participate in this kind of 'education.' " Heilig's team evaluated Narconon against a recent study by Rodney Skager, a professor emeritus at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, describing what good anti-drug programs should offer students. "We concurred that ... the Narconon materials focus on some topics of lesser importance to the exclusion of best knowledge and practices," Heilig wrote, and that the curriculum contained "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling."». 
  24. Tewksbury, Drew (2008). Scientology and the State: Narconon's Influence in the Prison System. ISBN 9780549609377. Consultado el 10 de diciembre de 2013. 
  25. Reitman, Janet (2011). Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion (Hardback). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-618-88302-8. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «narconon.»  Parámetro desconocido |url-access= ignorado (ayuda)
  26. California Healthy Kids Resource Center; Deborah Wood, Ph.D. (January 2005), Narconon Drug Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation, California, US: California Department of Education / California Department of Public Health, consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012, «Some drug-related information presented in the NDAP [Narconon] and supplementary resources — although aligned with the Narconon drug rehabilitation methodology — does not reflect accurate, widely accepted medical and scientific evidence. Some information is misleading because it is overstated or a distinction between drug use and abuse is lacking. ... This information reflects hypothesized processes of drug metabolism, bioavailability, and psychoactive impact, and is the premise for the Narconon detoxification regimen. This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate. ... Inaccuracies and misleading inferences were not limited to a single material, but were evident in NDAP elementary, middle and high school presentation outlines and delivery scripts and in the supplementary drug prevention materials available to schools ... Narconon program materials were independently reviewed by fourteen reviewers and three CHKRC staff. Reviewers included five doctors (M.D.s), four board certified in pediatrics and adolescent medicine and/or with specific expertise in addiction and substance abuse; two doctors (Ph.Ds) with expertise in child and adolescent development; one doctor (Ph.D.) with expertise in prevention research and program evaluation of substance abuse programs. Reviewers also included nine school health education specialists (with teaching credentials and/or masters level health or education degrees) including elementary, middle, and high school teachers, university faculty, and school district/county office of education tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse prevention education coordinators.» 
  27. Mieszkowski, Katharine (1 de julio de 2005). «Scientology's war on psychiatry». Salon.com. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «Narconon's discredited teachings include the pronouncements that drugs burn up the body's vitamins and minerals, that these vitamin deficiencies cause pain (which prompts more drug use), that rapid vitamin and nutrient losses cause the "munchies" among pot smokers, and that drugs build up in fat tissue and spur flashbacks and a hunger for more drugs. "This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate," the study found. This February, the California State Superintendent recommended a ban on Narconon in California schools, and San Francisco and Los Angeles school districts have indeed outlawed Narconon.» 
  28. Köhler, Nicholas (26 de septiembre de 2012). «Scientology's plan for Canada». Maclean's (Canada). «Local health officials said Narconon Trois-Rivières offered clients little medical supervision and relied on Scientology-inspired treatments with no scientific basis». 
  29. Berg, Rigmor C. (September 2008). A brief summary and evaluation of the evidence base for Narconon as drug prevention intervention (PDF). Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Centre for the Health Services. pp. 19-21. ISBN 978-82-8121-214-5. Archivado desde el original el 5 de abril de 2012. Consultado el 1 de febrero de 2012.  Parámetro desconocido |df= ignorado (ayuda)
  30. Ernst, Edzard (17 de agosto de 2012). «Scientology detox programmes: expensive and unproven». The Guardian. Consultado el 3 de noviembre de 2013. 
  31. Narconon The Origins of the Narconon Program. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  32. a b Narconon "L. Ron Hubbard and the Narconon program". Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  33. Drolet, Eve (22 de enero de 1970). «Dianetics Guarantees Victory Over Drugs». Honolulu Advertiser. p. A-2. «The Reverend John W. Elliott, senior minister of the Church of Scientology and chairman of its Drug Abuse Prevention team, announces that a technique called Dianetic Counselling has completely cured 30 out of 30 persons who came to his group for help. "Dianetic Counselling", says Elliot, "is a new technology which has resolved not only the craving for drugs, but also the after-effects. This will revolutionize the whole area of drug abuse, and the threat it poses to the mental and physical health of the State". ... Elliot feels the vast majority of people have some form of psychosomatic illness. Hay fever, asthma and arthritis are listed in this category by Elliot who says that Dianetics resolves all such problems». 
  34. «Scientology And It's (sic) Applications». Mercer Island Reporter. 8 de abril de 1971. «Scientology claims to have the only workable technology to find the source of a problem and eradicate it. ... While everyone is looking for a solution to drug abuse, Scientologists have one and use it.» 
  35. Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (25 de junio de 1990). «The Courting of Celebrities». Los Angeles Times. p. A18:5. Consultado el 6 de junio de 2006.  Additional convenience link at CMU.edu.
  36. Klotter, Julie (2007). «Hubbard's Drug Rehabilitation Program». Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine. Consultado el 27 de junio de 2011. 
  37. Gilmore, Heather (15 de agosto de 2004). «Scientology 'Detox' Furor: clinic draws client raves and researcher jeers». New York Post. 
  38. Crouch, Edmund A. C.; Laura C. Green (October 2007). «Comment on "Persistent organic pollutants in 9/11 world trade center rescue workers: Reduction following detoxification" by James Dahlgren, Marie Cecchini, Harpreet Takhar, and Olaf Paepke [Chemosphere 69/8 (2007) 1320–1325]». Chemosphere 69 (8): 1330-1332. Bibcode:2007Chmsp..69.1330C. PMID 17692360. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.05.098. 
  39. Welkos, Robert W.; Sapell, Joel. «Church Seeks Influence in Schools, Business, Science». Los Angeles Times. Archivado desde el original el 19 de abril de 2017. Consultado el 19 de abril de 2017. 
  40. «A Turning Point in our History». International Scientology News. 27 May 2004. «The answer is to make every one of our orgs a Central Organisation, a headquarters responsible for every sector of Scientology activity across its entire geographic zone - all of it! ... International Management bodies exist today for each sector of activity; including ... Social Betterment Activities which handle drug rehabilitation [Narconon] ... And each one now emanates from the Central Org into the environment.» 
  41. «Creating a New Civilisation: YOUR ROLE». wise at work. 2005. p. 14. «The Public Divisions ... are responsible to emanate [sic] every type of LRH technology ... “Since each Church will be the Central Organization for their area,” Mr. Miscavige explained, “there are displays encompassing every sector — with descriptions understandable by Scientologists and non- Scientologists alike. They both enlighten and generate new activities: from salvaging lives from illiteracy, addiction [Narconon] and crime; to programs for opening new groups to handle community ruins [sic]. It also includes everything to establish new missions, groups and VM chapters.” With such displays, the answer to questions on Scientology, LRH Admin Tech or LRH himself becomes just four words: Go to the org.» 
  42. "IAS 21st Anniversary Event, Impact 112, 2006
  43. Jacobs, Robin. «Is Scientology in Your Schools?». The Humanist. Archivado desde el original el 29 de febrero de 2008. Consultado el 15 de enero de 2014. 
  44. «CRUISE BATTLES JOURNALIST OVER SCIENTOLOGY BOASTS». World Entertainment News Network. 3 de mayo de 2005. «Hollywood hunk TOM CRUISE battled a German journalist over his controversial Scientology religion recently, claiming the faith ran the world's most successful drug rehabilitation program. ... When asked if Cruise had an official role to recruit new Scientologists, the MINORITY REPORT heart-throb replied, "I'm a helper. For instance, I myself have helped hundreds of people get off drugs. "In Scientology, we have the only successful drug rehabilitation program in the world. It's called Narconon." The Spiegel reporter quickly countered, "That's not correct. Yours is never mentioned among the recognised detox programs." Defiant Cruise replied, "You don't understand what I am saying. It's a statistically proven fact that there is only one successful drug rehabilitation program in the world. Period." The journalist answered, "With all due respect, we doubt that", before adding "Scientology is not considered a religion there (Germany), but rather an exploitative cult with totalitarian tendencies". After the reporter labelled Scientology a "cult", Cruise became defensive. He said, "We've won over 50 court cases in Germany. And it's not true that everyone in Germany supports that line against us. "A minority wants to hate - okay. For me, it's connected with intolerance."». 
  45. Urban, Hugh (2011). «The 'Cult of All Cults'?» (Hardcover). The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion. Princeton University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-691-14608-9. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «Although Cruise would divorce Rogers just a few years later, he quickly became Scientology's most outspoken and controversial supporter. Among other things, Cruise claims that Hubbard's technology helped him overcome dyslexia and that Narconon is the only successful drug rehabilitation program in the world.» 
  46. «Main Page». Archivado desde el original el 16 de enero de 2008. Consultado el 9 de diciembre de 2015. 
  47. «Whois: NarCodex.ca». DomainTools. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2010. 
  48. «What is Narcodex». Narcodex Wiki. Archivado desde el original el 22 de enero de 2008. Consultado el 5 de enero de 2014.  |archive-url= y |urlarchivo= redundantes (ayuda); |archive-date= y |fechaarchivo= redundantes (ayuda)
  49. «Scientologist-run rehab centre ordered closed in Quebec». CBC News (en inglés). Consultado el 13 de febrero de 2017. 
  50. Mendleson, Rachel (2 de septiembre de 2013). «Narconon meets fierce opposition in Hockley Valley». Toronto Star. Consultado el 19 de marzo de 2014. 
  51. Mendleson, Rachel (9 de septiembre de 2013). «Narconon loses bid to buy property in Hockley Village». Toronto Star. Consultado el 9 de septiembre de 2013. 
  52. «Feds fund Scientology-backed detox program for vets in Annapolis». The Capital Gazette. Consultado el 12 de julio de 2017. 
  53. «Gulf War Illness Research Program». CDMRP Department of Defense. Consultado el 12 de julio de 2017. 
  54. «Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) Search Awards». cdmrp.army.mil. Consultado el 11 de noviembre de 2018. 
  55. a b Marshall, John (24 de enero de 1980). «The Scientology Papers / Hubbard still gave orders, records show». The Globe and Mail. «A document with FBI number 7822, dated Nov. 5, 1976, and signed by Judy Taussig, a U. S. national official of Scientology, defined the correct use of the codes. They were to be used, the court learned, for groups or actions that we don't want connected to LRH or MSH. This is handled by coding their names. Also coding the group or action if it falls into categories #1-#8. That list included incriminating activities, unpunished crimes, and things like lobbying where this is prohibited in non-profit corporations, or money deals that might provoke government tax offices. The document also said the codes should be used for words of actions that could tend to dispute the fact that the C of S motives are humanitarian, i.e., harass, eradicate, attack, destroy, annihilate ... spreading a rumor, entrapment, stir up opposition. And codes should be used for the names of front groups that we do not want connected with the C of S and for anything that gives specific and actual evidence that the C of S is in legal control of B6 groups. These are groups that are separate legal entities to the C of S. An attachment to the document, listed in the prosecution inventory as item 104 in Box C16, said B6 groups include Narconon, a drug treatment organization staffed by Scientologists and using Mr. Hubbard's mental health techniques.» 
  56. Price, Marie (3 May 2003). «House nixes honor for substance-abuse facility». Tulsa World. pp. A19. Consultado el 19 de marzo de 2014. 
  57. United States vs. Mary Sue Hubbard et al. Archivado el 18 de noviembre de 2005 en la Wayback Machine., 493 F. Supp. 209, (D.D.C. 1979) (hosted by the Lisa McPherson Trust)
  58. Asimov, Nanette. «Schools urged to drop antidrug program / Scientology-linked teachings inaccurate, superintendent says». SFGATE - San Francisco Chronicle. Consultado el 23 de febrero de 2005. 
  59. Ortega, Tony. «The Underground Bunker». 
  60. Charles Rusnell Experts challenge claims of Scientology's sweat-it-out treatment for addicts Archivado el 27 de mayo de 2007 en la Wayback Machine. The Edmonton Journal, 23 May 2006 pg. A2
  61. Alan McEwen "Scientology-link group is banned" Archivado el 13 de octubre de 2007 en la Wayback Machine., Edinburgh Evening News, 18 March 2004. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  62. Bracchi, Paul (13 de junio de 1994). «Secret of a drugs 'cure' / Scientology: The Inside Story». Evening Argus. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «Asked if it was simply a "front" organisation to recruit people into the cult, Mr wood insisted: "I don't know of many organisations more up-front than the Church of Scientology. ... I know beyond doubt that Narconon does not recruit for nor promote the Church of Scientology and I know that subject is not mentioned nor included in the Narconon syllabus". He said "no Church of Scientology staff members work for Narconon". A Narconon leaflet lists two names with telephone numbers. One is Mr Wood. The other is Peter Mansell - public affairs officer at the national headquarters of Scientology at Saint Hill, East Grinstead. ... We have a copy of the Narconon Technical Line-Up, the final of which led straight to the doors of the cult. The message on the chart reads: "Route to nearest Org (Scientology) organisation) for further services if individual so desires." The process is summed up in Narconon News. The headline and slogans speak for themselves: "Narconon is freeing people from crime and drug abuse and starting them up Ron's bridge to total freedom. Who can you start across that bridge."». 
  63. Mason, Tania (13 de septiembre de 2001). «C of E blasts 'drug salvation' claims of Scientologists». Marketing (UK: Brand Republic Group). Consultado el 8 de abril de 2014. «Scientology spokesman Graeme Wilson said the claims were based on rehabilitation programmes run by the church and its affiliate charity, Narconon.» 
  64. Mallia, Joseph (3 de marzo de 1998). «Scientology reaches into schools through Narconon». Inside the Church of Scientology. Boston Herald. Consultado el 14 de diciembre de 2008. 
  65. a b Jim MacLaughlin and Andrew Gully "Church of Scientology probes Herald reporter - Investigation follows pattern of harassment" Archivado el 5 de abril de 2006 en la Wayback Machine. Boston Herald 19 March 1998 Pg. 004
  66. «Narconon Information Center of Montreal». Archivado desde el original el 17 de julio de 2006. Consultado el 7 de octubre de 2006. «© Copyright 2006 Lafleche Dumais & Richard Kelly Narconon FSM.» 
  67. Fleischer, Jodie (3 de octubre de 2012). «Whistleblower, memo link Georgia Narconon to Scientology». WSB-TV2 Atlanta; Channel 2 Action News. Consultado el 14 de abril de 2014. 
  68. a b c Peters, Paul (10 de julio de 2008). «Scientology Nation». Salt Lake City Weekly. pp. 20-22, 24. Consultado el 22 de agosto de 2013. 
  69. «Inside Scientology's Rehab Racket». 27 de marzo de 2011. Consultado el 5 de noviembre de 2013. 
  70. Woolsley, Leigh (6 de noviembre de 2005). «Case for the Cure». Tulsa World. 
  71. Knopf, Alison (30 de julio de 2012). «Scientology-based substance abuse program investigated for deaths». Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly. Consultado el 11 de diciembre de 2013. 
  • «NARCONON to give awards». The Phoenix Gazette. 19 de mayo de 1970. Consultado el 6 de septiembre de 2012. «General information regarding the technology of Scientology, upon which NARCONON is based, can be secured from the Institute of Applied Philosophy». 
  • «The Four Basic Social Programs». The Hawaiian-American. 17 de diciembre de 1975. Consultado el 6 de septiembre de 2012. «We talked with Rev. Diana Harris, Pastor of the Church of Scientology of Hawaii ... and she gave us a complete background on the church's social programs for those in need in our community. ... Another community program the church offers is Narconon - a program designed to assist persons to get off drugs and to keep off drugs. The program was utilized in Oahu State Prison for a while and enjoyed a very high rate of success, according to Pastor Harris. They [Scientology] have been asked to consider re-introducing the program to the prison at a later date.» 
  • Farley, Robert (30 de marzo de 2003). «Detox center seeks acceptance». St Petersburg Times. «When Narconon opened its Chilocco facility in 1991, the Oklahoma Board of Mental Health issued a blistering assessment in denying its application for certification. "There is no credible evidence establishing the effectiveness of the Narconon program to its patients," the board concluded. It attacked the program as medically unsafe; dismissed the sauna program as unproven; and criticized Narconon for inappropriately taking some patients off prescribed psychiatric medication.» 
  • «30 arrested in Paris crackdown on Scientologists». Agence France-Presse. 14 de enero de 1992. «About 30 Scientologists were arrested -- and 19 of them later indicted -- between May and October 1990 on charges of fraud, conspiracy to defraud and the illegal practice of medicine following the 1988 suicide of a church member in Lyon, eastern France. ... The sect has often found itself in trouble with officialdom the world over, accused of defrauding and brainwashing followers and, in France, of quackery at its illegal anti-drug clinics called "Narconon."». 
  • Asimov, Nanette (2 de octubre de 2004). «Church's drug program flunks S.F. test / Panel of experts finds Scientology's Narconon lectures outdated, inaccurate». San Francisco Chronicle. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «The program, Narconon Drug Prevention & Education, "often exemplifies the outdated, non-evidence-based and sometimes factually inaccurate approach, which has not served students well for decades," concluded Steve Heilig, director of health and education for the San Francisco Medical Society. In his letter to Trish Bascom, director of health programs for the San Francisco Unified School District, Heilig said five independent experts in the field of drug abuse had helped him evaluate Narconon's curriculum. ... "One of our reviewers opined that 'this (curriculum) reads like a high school science paper pieced together from the Internet, and not very well at that,' " Heilig wrote Bascom. "Another wrote that 'my comments will be brief, as this proposal hardly merits detailed analysis.' Another stated, 'As a parent, I would not want my child to participate in this kind of 'education.' " Heilig's team evaluated Narconon against a recent study by Rodney Skager, a professor emeritus at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, describing what good anti-drug programs should offer students. "We concurred that ... the Narconon materials focus on some topics of lesser importance to the exclusion of best knowledge and practices," Heilig wrote, and that the curriculum contained "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling."». 
  • Asimov, Nanette (27 de marzo de 2005). «Doctors back schools dropping flawed antidrug program». San Francisco Chronicle. «The California Medical Association has declared unanimous support for school districts that have dropped Narconon and other "factually inaccurate approaches" to antidrug instruction from their classrooms, and will urge the American Medical Association to do the same. Nearly 500 California doctors also endorsed "scientifically based drug education in California schools"». 
  • Mieszkowski, Katharine (1 de julio de 2005). «Scientology’s war on psychiatry». Salon.com. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012. «Narconon's discredited teachings include the pronouncements that drugs burn up the body's vitamins and minerals, that these vitamin deficiencies cause pain (which prompts more drug use), that rapid vitamin and nutrient losses cause the "munchies" among pot smokers, and that drugs build up in fat tissue and spur flashbacks and a hunger for more drugs. "This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate," the study found. This February, the California State Superintendent recommended a ban on Narconon in California schools, and San Francisco and Los Angeles school districts have indeed outlawed Narconon.» 
  • California Healthy Kids Resource Center; Deborah Wood, Ph.D. (January de 2005), Narconon Drug Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation, California, US: California Department of Education / California Department of Public Health, consultado el 7 de septiembre de 2012, «Some drug-related information presented in the NDAP [Narconon] and supplementary resources — although aligned with the Narconon drug rehabilitation methodology — does not reflect accurate, widely accepted medical and scientific evidence. Some information is misleading because it is overstated or a distinction between drug use and abuse is lacking. ... This information reflects hypothesized processes of drug metabolism, bioavailability, and psychoactive impact, and is the premise for the Narconon detoxification regimen. This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate. ... Inaccuracies and misleading inferences were not limited to a single material, but were evident in NDAP elementary, middle and high school presentation outlines and delivery scripts and in the supplementary drug prevention materials available to schools ... Narconon program materials were independently reviewed by fourteen reviewers and three CHKRC staff. Reviewers included five doctors (M.D.s), four board certified in pediatrics and adolescent medicine and/or with specific expertise in addiction and substance abuse; two doctors (Ph.Ds) with expertise in child and adolescent development; one doctor (Ph.D.) with expertise in prevention research and program evaluation of substance abuse programs. Reviewers also included nine school health education specialists (with teaching credentials and/or masters level health or education degrees) including elementary, middle, and high school teachers, university faculty, and school district/county office of education tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse prevention education coordinators.»