|Siegfried Fred Singer|
|Nacimiento||27 de septiembre de 1924 (91 años)
|Campo||física de la atmósfera|
|Instituciones||Profesor emérito de ciencias ambientales, University of Virginia
fundador y Pte. Science & Environmental Policy Project
|Alma máter||Universidad Estatal de Ohio, Princeton University|
|Supervisor doctoral||John Archibald Wheeler|
|Tesis||'"El espectro de densidad y la dependencia de la latitud sobre extensivos rayos cósmicos"' (1948)|
|Conocido por||investigador espacial temprana, 1er. director del Servicio Meteorológico Nacional de Satélites EE.UU. (1962-1964), partícipe en Controversia sobre el calentamiento global, climatología dinámica, marea atmosférica, fotoquímica del ozono, oscilación cuasi bienal, hipótesis de iris|
|Doctor Honoris Causa Universidad de Ohio
1970, Mención Especial del Pte. Eisenhower por su diseño inicial de satélites, 1954
Premio Medalla de Oro al Servicio Federal Distinguido
educación: Ingeniería eléctrica B.E.E (1943)
M.Sc. de física (1944)
Ph.D. de física (1948)
Siegfried Fred Singer (27 de septiembre de 1924) es un físico austríaco-estadounidense, y profesor emérito de ciencia ambiental de la Universidad de Virginia. Singer tiene entrenamiento en física de la atmósfera y es conocido por su trabajo en la investigación espacial, la contaminación atmosférica, cohetes y tecnología de satélites, su cuestionamiento de la relación entre las tasas de melanoma UV-B y, y entre los CFC y la pérdida estratosférica de ozono, es la negación pública de los riesgos para la salud del tabaquismo pasivo, y como abierto crítico de la supuesta consistencia en la corriente principal de evaluación científica del calentamiento global. Es autor o editor de varios libros como Global Effects of Environmental Pollution (1970), The Ocean in Human Affairs (1989), Global Climate Change (1989), The Greenhouse Debate Continued (1992), y Hot Talk, Cold Science (1997). Y coautor de Imparable Calentamiento Global: cada 1500 años (2007) con Dennis Avery, y Climate Change Reconsidered (2009) con Craig Idso. 
Singer ha tenido una variada carrera, sirviendo en las fuerzas armadas, el gobierno y el mundo académico. Diseñó minas para la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la segunda guerra mundial, antes de obtener su Ph.D. en física por la Universidad de Princeton en 1948 y trabajando como oficial de enlace científico, en la Embajada de Estados Unidos en Londres. Se convirtió en una figura destacada en la investigación espacial temprana, estando involucrado en el desarrollo de satélites de observación terestres, y en 1962 se estableció en el Centro de Servicio de Satélites del Servicio Meteorológico de EE. UU.. Fue decano fundador de la Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Planetarias de la Universidad de Miami en 1964, y ocupó varios cargos en el gobierno, incluyendo ser administrador adjunto para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos (EPA), y jefe científico para el Departamento de Transporte. Ocupó una cátedra en la Universidad de Virginia desde 1971 hasta 1994, y en la Universidad George Mason hasta 2000. 
Singer ha sido un defensor de la postura escéptica en el controversia sobre el calentamiento global por años. En 1990, fundó el Science & Environmental Policy Project (Proyecto de Ciencia y Política Ambiental) para abogar en esas posiciones,  y en 2006 fue nombrado por el Canadian Broadcasting Corporation como parte de la minoría de científicos creadores de un enfrentamiento con el consenso sobre el cambio climático. Singer argumenta que no hay evidencia de que el calentamiento global es atribuible a los aumentos de origen humano en la atmósfera del dióxido de carbono, y que la humanidad se beneficiaría si las temperaturas subieran. Es un oponente del Protocolo de Kioto, y afirma que los modelos climáticos que los científicos usan para proyectar futuros escenarios son "modelos muy bonitos, pero no son reales y producen evidencias falsas."  Singer ha sido acusado de rechazar trabajos revisados por pares; y, de forma independiente confirmó la evidencia científica en sus afirmaciones en relación con la salud pública y el ambiente.    
- 1 Primeros años y educación
- 2 Carrera
- 3 Debates públicos
- 4 Selected publications
- 5 Véase también
- 6 Fuentes
- 7 Notas
- 8 Otras lecturas
- 9 Enlaces externos
Primeros años y educación[editar]
Singer es originario de Viena, Austria, donde su padre era joyero y su madre ama de casa. Cuando los nazis invadieron, la familia huyó, y Singer fue dejado en un tren de transporte para niños con otros niños judíos. Terminó en Inglaterra, donde vivió en Northumberland, trabajar durante un tiempo como un óptico adolescente. Varios años más tarde emigró a Ohio y se convirtió en ciudadano estadounidense en 1944.  En 1943, Recibió un B.E.E. en ingeniería eléctrica por la Universidad Estatal de Ohio, y en 1944, un A.M. en física por la Universidad Princetonn. Y enseñó física en Princeton mientras trabajaba en su maestría y su doctorado, obteniéndolo allí en 1948; siendo su tesis doctoral, "The density spectrum and latitude dependence of extensive cosmic ray air showers." Su supervisor fue John Archibald Wheeler, and his thesis committee included J. Robert Oppenheimer and Niels Bohr.
1950: Armada de EE. UU.[editar]
Después de su maestría, se unió a las Fuerzas Armadas, trabajando para la Armada de EE. UU, en la guerra de minas y contramedidas, a partir de 1944 y hasta 1946. Mientras en el Lab. Naval Ordnance desarrolló un elemento aritmética para una calculadora digital que él llamó un "cerebro electrónico." Fue dado de alta en 1946, y se unió al "Programa de Cohetes de la Atmósfera Superior", del Lab. de Física Aplicada, Universidad Johns Hopkins, en Silver Spring, Maryland, trabajando allí hasta 1950. Se enfocó en ozono, rayos cósmicos, ionósfera, realizando mediciones usando globos y cohetes launched from White Sands, New Mexico, or from ships out at sea. Rachel White Scheuering writes that for one mission to launch a rocket, he sailed with a naval operation to the Arctic, and also conducted rocket launching from ships at the equator.
From 1950 to 1953, he was attached to the U.S. Embassy in London as a scientific liaison officer with the Office of Naval Research, where he studied research programs in Europe into cosmic radiation and nuclear physics. While there, he was one of eight delegates with a background in guided weapons projects to address the Fourth International Congress of Astronautics in Zurich in August 1953, at a time when, as The New York Times reported, most scientists saw space flight as thinly disguised science fiction.
1951: Diseño de los primeros satélites[editar]
Singer was one of the first scientists to urge the launching of earth satellites for scientific observation during the 1950s. In 1951 or 1952 he proposed the MOUSE ("Minimal Orbital Unmanned Satellite, Earth"), un satélite de 45 kg that would contain Geiger counters for measuring cosmic rays, photo cells for scanning the Earth, telemetry electronics for sending data back to Earth, a magnetic data storage device, and rudimentary solar energy cells. Although MOUSE never flew, the Baltimore News Post reported in 1957 that had Singer's arguments about the need for satellites been heeded, the U.S. could have beaten Russia by launching the first earth satellite. He also proposed (along with R. C. Wentworth) that satellite measurement of ultraviolet backscatter could be used as a method to measure atmospheric ozone profiles. This technique was later used on early weather satellites.
1953: University of Maryland[editar]
Singer moved back to the United States in 1953, where he took up an associate professorship in physics at the University of Maryland, and at the same time served as the director of the Center for Atmospheric and Space Physics. Scheuering writes that his work involved conducting experiments on rockets and satellites, remote sensing, radiation belts, the magnetosphere, and meteorites. He developed a new method of launching rockets into space: firing them from a high-flying plane, both with and without a pilot. The Navy adopted the idea and Singer supervised the project. He received a White House Special Commendation from President Eisenhower in 1954 for his work.
He became one of 12 board members of the American Astronautical Society, an organization formed in 1954 to represent the country's 300 leading scientists and engineers in the area of guided missiles—he was one of seven members of the board to resign in diciembre de 1956 after a series of disputes about the direction and control of the group.
En noviembre de 1957 Singer and other scientists at the university successfully designed and fired three new "Oriole" rockets off the Virginia Capes. The rockets weighed less than 11 kg and could be built for around $2000. Fired from a converted Navy LSM, they could reach an altitud de 50 000 pies (15 240 m) and had a complete telemetry system to send back information on cosmic, ultraviolet and X-rays. Singer said that the firings placed "the exploration of outer space with high altitude rockets on the same basis, cost-wise and effort-wise, as low atmosphere measurements with weather balloons. From now on, we can fire thousands of these rockets all over the world with very little cost."
En febrero de 1958, when he was head of the cosmic ray group of the University of Maryland's physics department, he was congratulated in a telegram to the president of the university from President Eisenhower for his work in satellite research. En abril de 1958, he was appointed as a consultant to the House Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, which was preparing to hold hearings on President Eisenhower's proposal for a new agency to handle space research, and a month later received the Ohio State University's Distinguished Alumnus Award. He became a full professor at Maryland in 1959, and was chosen that year by the United States Junior Chamber of Commerce as one of the country's ten outstanding young men.
En enero de 1960, presentation to the American Physical Society, Singer sketched out his vision of what the environment around the earth might consist of, extending up to 40 000 millas (64 373,76 km) into space. He became known for his early predictions about the properties of the electrical particles trapped around the earth, which were partly verified by later discoveries in satellite experiments. En diciembre de 1960, he suggested the existence of a shell of visible dust particles around the earth some 600 to 1000 millas (1609,344 km) in space, beyond which there was a layer of smaller particles, a micrometre or less in diameter, extending 2,000 to 4000 millas (6437,376 km). En marzo de 1961, Singer and another University of Maryland physicist, E. J. Opik, were given a $97,000 grant by NASA to conduct a three-year study of interplanetary gas and dust.
1960: Hipótesis artificial de Phobos[editar]
En 1960, Astronautics newsletter, Singer commented on Iosif Shklovsky's hypothesis  that the orbit of the luna marciana Phobos suggests that it is hollow, which implies it is of artificial origin. Singer wrote: "My conclusion there is, and here I back Shklovsky, that if the satellite is indeed spiraling inward as deduced from astronomical observation, then there is little alternative to the hypothesis that it is hollow and therefore martian made. The big "if" lies in the astronomical observations; they may well be in error. Since they are based on several independent sets of measurements taken decades apart by different observers with different instruments, systematic errors may have influenced them." Later measurements confirmed Singer's big "if" caveat: Shklovsky overestimated Phobos' rate of altitude loss due to bad early data. Photographs by probes beginning 1972 show a natural stony surface with craters. Ufologists continue to present Singer as an unconditional supporter of Shklovsky's artificial Phobos hypothesis.
Time magazine wrote in 1969 that Singer had had a lifelong fascination with Phobos and Mars's second moon, Deimos. He told Time it might be possible to pull Deimos into the Earth's orbit so it could be examined. During an international space symposium in May 1966, attended by space scientists from the United States and Soviet Union, he first proposed that manned landings on the moons would be a logical step after a manned landing on the Earth's moon. He pointed out that the very small sizes of Phobos and Deimos—approximately 14 millas (22,530816 km) and eight miles (13 km) in diameter and sub milli-g surface gravity—would make it easier for a spacecraft to land and take off again.
1962: National Weather Center and University of Miami[editar]
In 1962, on leave from the university, Singer was named as the first director of meteorological satellite services for the National Weather Satellite Center, now part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and directed a program for using satellites to forecast the weather. He stayed there until 1964. He told Time magazine in 1969 that he enjoyed moving around. "Each move gave me a completely new perspective," he said. "If I had sat still, I'd probably still be measuring cosmic rays, the subject of my thesis at Princeton. That's what happens to most scientists." When he stepped down as director he received a Department of Commerce Gold Medal Award for Distinguished Federal Service.
In 1964, he became the first dean of the School of Environmental and Planetary Sciences at the University of Miami in 1964, the first school of its kind in the country, dedicated to space-age research. En diciembre de 1965, The New York Times reported on a conference Singer hosted in Miami Beach during which five groups of scientists, working independently, presented research identifying what they believed was the remains of a primordial flash that occurred when the universe was born.
1967: Department of Interior and EPA[editar]
In 1967 he accepted the position of deputy assistant secretary with the U.S. Department of the Interior, where he was in charge of water quality and research. When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created on 1970, he became its deputy assistant administrator of policy.
1971–1994 University of Virginia[editar]
Singer accepted a professorship in Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia in 1971, a position he held until 1994, where he taught classes on environmental issues such as ozone depletion, acid rain, climate change, population growth, and public policy issues related to oil and energy. In 1987 he took up a two-year post as chief scientist at the Department of Transportation, and in 1989 joined the Institute of Space Science and Technology in Gainesville, Florida where he contributed to a paper on the results from the Interplanetary Dust Experiment using data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite.  When he retired from Virginia in 1994, he became Distinguished Research Professor at the Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University until 2000.
Singer has worked as a consultant for several government agencies, including the House Select Committee on Space, NASA, the Government Accountability Office, the National Science Foundation, the United States Atomic Energy Commission, National Research Council, the Department of Defense Strategic Defense Initiative, Department of Energy Nuclear Waste Panel, and the Department of the Treasury. Other clients have included the states of Virginia, Alaska, and Pennsylvania. In the private sector he has worked for Mitre Corp., GE, Ford, General Motors; during the late 1970s Singer consulted with Exxon, Shell, Unocal Sun Oil, and ARCO on oil pricing; and Lockheed Martin, Martin–Marietta, McDonnell-Douglas, ANSER, and IBM on space research. He has also advised the Independent Institute, the American Council on Science and Health, and Frontiers of Freedom.
Throughout his academic career Singer has written frequently in the mainstream press, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Wall Street Journal, often striking up positions that go against mainstream thinking. His overall position one of distrust of federal regulations and a faith in the free market. He believes in what Rachel White Scheuering calls "free market environmentalism": that market principles and incentives should be sufficient to lead to the protection of the environment and conservation of resources. Regular themes in his articles have been energy, oil embargoes, OPEC, Iran, and rising prices. Throughout the 1970s, for example, he downplayed the idea of an energy crisis and said it was largely a media event.  In several papers in the 1990s and 2000s he struck up other positions against the mainstream, questioning the link between UV-B and melanoma rates, and that between CFCs and stratospheric ozone loss.
En octubre de 1967, Singer escribió un artículo para el The Washington Post from the perspective of 2007. His predictions included that planets had been explored but not colonized, and although rockets had become more powerful they had not replaced aircraft and ramjet vehicles. None of the fundamental laws of physics had been overturned. There was increased reliance on the electronic computer and data processor; the most exciting development was the increase in human intellect by direct electronic storage of information in the brain—the coupling of the brain to an external computer, thereby gaining direct access to an information library.
Durante la Operación Tormenta del Desierto en 1991, he argued that smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires would have little impact, in opposition to most commentators. He debated the astronomer Carl Sagan on ABC's Nightline, Sagan arguing that the smoke might loft into the upper atmosphere and lead to massive agricultural failures. Singer argued that it would rise to 3000 pies (914,4 m) then be rained out after a few days. Singer's position proved correct: the fires had little impact beyond the Gulf region.  
Los debates públicos de Singer le han significado críticas acerca del fumador pasivo y del calentamiento global. He has questioned the link between second-hand smoke and cáncer de pulmón, and has been an outspoken opponent of the mainstream scientific view on climate change; argumenta que no hay evidencia de que el calentamiento global es atribuible a los aumentos de origen humano en la atmósfera de CO2 produced by human beings is causing global warming and that the temperature of the earth has always varied. A CBC Fifth Estate documentary in 2006 linked these two debates, naming Singer as a scientist who has acted as a consultant to industry in both areas, either directly or through a public relations firm. Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway named Singer in their book, Merchants of Doubt, as one of three contrarian physicists—along with Fred Seitz and Bill Nierenberg—who regularly injected themselves into the public debate about contentious scientific issues, positioning themselves as skeptics, their views gaining traction because the media gives them equal time out of a sense of fairness.
Fraude en los fumadores pasivos[editar]
According to David Biello and John Pavlus in Scientific American, Singer is best known for his denial of the health risks of passive smoking. He was involved in 1994 as writer and reviewer of a report on the issue by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, where he was a senior fellow. The report criticized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for their 1993 study about the cancer risks of passive smoking, calling it "junk science". Singer told CBC's The Fifth Estate in 2006 that he stood by the position that the EPA had "cooked the data" to show that second-hand smoke causes lung cancer. CBC said that tobacco money had paid for Singer's research and for his promotion of it, and that it was organized by APCO. Singer told CBC it made no difference where the money came from. "They don't carry a note on a dollar bill saying 'This comes from the tobacco industry,'" he said. "In any case I was not aware of it, and I didn't ask APCO where they get their money. That's not my business." En diciembre de 2010 he wrote in American Thinker that he is nonsmoker who finds second-hand smoke an unpleasant irritant that cannot be healthy; he also wrote that his father, a heavy smoker, died of emphysema when relatively young. According to Singer, he serves on the advisory board of an anti-smoking organization, and has never been paid by Philip Morris or the tobacco lobby.
En 2006, the CBC's Fifth Estate named Singer as one of a small group of scientists who have created what the documentary called a stand-off that is undermining the political response to global warming. The following year he appeared on the British Channel 4 documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle. Singer argumenta que no hay evidencia de que el incremento en CO2 producido por la actividad humana cause calentamiento global, y si la temperatura subiese sería bueno para la humaniddad. Le dijo a la CBC: "Hace mil años, estaba más cálido que hoy. Los asentamientos vikings en Groenlandia. ¿Fue bueno o malo? Pienso que bueno. Cultivaron uva de vino en Inglaterra, en el norte del país. Pienso que fue bueno. Al menos alguiewn piensa así." "We are certainly putting more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere," he told The Daily Telegraph in 2009. "However there is no evidence that this high CO2 is making a detectable difference. It should in principle, however the atmosphere is very complicated and one cannot simply argue that just because CO2 is a greenhouse gas it causes warming." He believes that radical environmentalists are exaggerating the dangers. "The underlying effort here seems to be to use global warming as an excuse to cut down the use of energy," he said. "It's very simple: if you cut back the use of energy, then you cut back economic growth. And believe it or not, there are people in the world who believe we have gone too far in economic growth." As early as 1992, Singer was charged publicly by a CO2 scientist from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of unethical conduct in certain publications, a charge which was reiterated in 2006.
SEPP and funding[editar]
In 1990 Singer set up the Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) to argue against preventive measures against global warming. After the 1991 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit, Singer started writing and speaking out to cast doubt on the science. He predicted disastrous economic damage from any restrictions on fossil fuel use, and argued that the natural world and its weather patterns are complex and ill-understood, and that little is known about the dynamics of heat exchange from the oceans to the atmosphere, or the role of clouds. As the scientific consensus grew, he continued to argue from a skeptical position. He has repeatedly criticized the climate models that predict global warming. In 1994 he compared model results to observed temperatures and found that the predicted temperatures for 1950–1980 deviated from the temperatures that had actually occurred, from which he concluded in his regular column in The Washington Times—with the headline that day "Climate Claims Wither under the Luminous Lights of Science"—that climate models are faulty. In 2007 he collaborated on a study that found tropospheric temperature trends of "Climate of the 20th Century" models differed from satellite observations by twice the model mean uncertainty.
Rachel White Scheuering writes that, when SEPP began, it was affiliated with the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a think tank founded by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. A 1990 article for the Cato Institute identifies Singer as the director of the science and environmental policy project at the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, on leave from the University of Virginia. Scheuering writes that Singer had cut ties with the institute, and is funded by foundations and oil companies. She writes that he has been a paid consultant for many years for ARCO, ExxonMobil, Shell, Sun Oil Company, and Unocal, and that SEPP has received grants from ExxonMobil. Singer has said his financial relationships do not influence his research. Scheuering argues that his conclusions concur with the economic interests of the companies that pay him, in that the companies want to see a reduction in environmental regulation.
In August 2007 Newsweek reported that in April 1998 a dozen people from what it called "the denial machine" met at the American Petroleum Institute's Washington headquarters. The meeting included Singer's group, the George C. Marshall Institute, and ExxonMobil. Newsweek said that, according to an eight-page memo that was leaked, the meeting proposed a $5-million campaign to convince the public that the science of global warming was controversial and uncertain. The plan was leaked to the press and never implemented. The week after the story, Newsweek published a contrary view from Robert Samuelson, one of its columnists, who said the story of an industry-funded denial machine was contrived and fundamentally misleading. ABC News reported in March 2008 that Singer said he is not on the payroll of the energy industry, but he acknowledged that SEPP had received one unsolicited charitable donation of $10,000 from ExxonMobil, and that it was one percent of all donations received. Singer said that his connection to Exxon was more like being on their mailing list than holding a paid position. The relationships have discredited Singer's research among members of the scientific community, according to Scheuering. Congresswoman Lynn Rivers questioned Singer's credibility during a congressional hearing in 1995, saying he had not been able to publish anything in a peer-reviewed scientific journal for the previous 15 years, except for one technical comment. 
Crítica al IPCC[editar]
En 1995 el Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a report reflecting the scientific consensus that the balance of evidence suggests there is a discernible human influence on global climate. Singer responded with a letter to Science saying the IPCC report had presented material selectively. He wrote: "the Summary does not even mention the existence of 18 years of weather satellite data that show a slight global cooling trend, contradicting all theoretical models of climate warming." Scheuering writes that Singer acknowledges the surface thermometers from weather stations show warming, but he argues that the satellites provide better data because their measurements cover pole to pole. According to Edward Parson and Andrew Dessler, the satellite data did not show surface temperatures directly, but had to be adjusted using models. When adjustment was made for transient events the data showed a slight warming, and research suggested that the discrepancy between surface and satellite data was largely accounted for by problems such as instrument differences between satellites.
Singer wrote the "Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change in the U.S." in 1995, updating it in 1997 to rebut the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was the result of an international convention held in Kyoto, Japan, during which several industrialized nations agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Singer's declaration read: "Energy is essential for economic growth... We understand the motivation to eliminate what are perceived to be the driving forces behind a potential climate change; but we believe the Kyoto Protocol—to curtail carbon dioxide emissions from only a part of the world community—is dangerously simplistic, quite ineffective, and economically destructive to jobs and standards-of-living."
Scheuering writes that Singer circulated this in the United States and Europe and gathered 100 signatories, though she says some of the signatories' credentials were questioned. At least 20 were television weather reporters, some did not have science degrees, and 14 were listed as professors without specifying a field. According to Scheuering, some of them later said they believed they were signing a document in favour of action against climate change.
Singer ha participado del Panel Internacional No Gubernamental sobre el Cambio Climático (acrónimo en inglés NIPCC) después de una conferencia sobre el clima, en Naciones Unidas, en 2004, en Milán. El NIPCC organizó un taller internacional sobre el clima en Viena en abril de 2007, to provide what they called an independent examination of the evidence for climate change. Singer prepared an NIPCC report called "Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate," publicado en marzo de 2008 en The Heartland Institute, un conservador think tank. El ABC News dijo que el mismo mes en que los científicos del clima no identificados de la NASA, Stanford, Princeton y que habló con ABC sobre el informe como "tontería inventada." En una carta de queja a ABC News, Singer dijo que su pieza utiliza "lenguaje perjudicial, hechos distorsionados, insinuaciones difamatorias, y calumnias anónimas."
Sin embargo, Singer se caracteriza a sí mismo como un "escéptico" en lugar de un "negador" del cambio climático global. In an article in American Thinker, he complaines about bad arguments used by the "deniers," saying that "Climate deniers are giving us skeptics a bad name."
En diciembre 2009, luego the release of thousands of e-mails from the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit—a controversy that came to be known as "Climategate"—Singer wrote an opinion piece for Reuters in which he said the scientists had misused peer review, pressured editors to prevent publication of alternative views, and smeared opponents. He said the leaked e-mails showed that the "surface temperature data that IPCC relies on is based on distorted raw data and algorithms that they will not share with the science community." He argued that the incident exposed a flawed process, and that the temperature trends were heading downwards even as greenhouse gases like CO2 were increasing in the atmosphere. He wrote: "This negative correlation contradicts the results of the models that IPCC relies on and indicates that anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is quite small," concluding "and now it turns out that global warming might have been 'man made' after all." A British House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee later issued a report that largely exonerated the scientists.
- Global Effects of Environmental Pollution (Reidel, 1970)
- Manned Laboratories in Space (Reidel, 1970)
- Is There an Optimum Level of Population? (McGraw-Hill, 1971)
- The Changing Global Environment (Reidel, 1975)
- Arid Zone Development (Ballinger, 1977)
- Economic Effects of Demographic Changes (Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress, 1977)
- Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Decisionmaking (Mitre Corp, 1979)
- Energy (W.H. Freeman, 1979)
- The Price of World Oil (Annual Reviews of Energy, Vol. 8, 1983)
- Free Market Energy (Universe Books, 1984)
- Oil Policy in a Changing Market (Annual Reviews of Energy, Vol. 12, 1987)
- The Ocean in Human Affairs (Paragon House, 1989)
- The Universe and Its Origin: From Ancient Myths to Present Reality and Future Fantasy (Paragon House, 1990)
- Global Climate Change: Human and Natural Influences (Paragon House, 1989)
- The Greenhouse Debate Continued (ICS Press, 1992)
- The Scientific Case Against the Global Climate Treaty (SEPP, 1997)
- Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming's Unfinished Debate (The Independent Institute, 1997)
- con Dennis Avery. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
- Portal:Calentamiento global. Contenido relacionado con Calentamiento global.
- Lista de científicos opuestos al consenso de calentamiento global
- Esta obra contiene una traducción 14 de septiembre de 2013 derivada de Fred Singer de Wikipedia en inglés, concretamente de
- "Retired faculty", University of Virginia, visto 28 de diciembre de 2010.
- Singer, S. Fred. "Ozone, Skin Cancer, and the SST", Science & Environmental Policy Project, julio 1994, visto 18 de mayo de 2010.
- Singer, S. Fred. "The hole truth about CFCs", Science & Environmental Policy Project, 21 de marzo de 1994, visto 18 de mayo de 2010
- Singer, S. Fred. "Five Scientific Questions On The CFC-Ozone Issue", Science & Environmental Policy Project, 16 de octubre de 2009, visto 18 de mayo de 2010.
- Scheuering, Rachel White, "S. Fred Singer," in Shapers of the Great Debate on Conservation: A Biographical Dictionary, Greenwood Press, 2004, p. 115-127
- S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Science & Environmental Policy Project, visto 13 de mayo de 2010.
- Zeller, Tom. "And in This Corner, Climate Contrarians", The New York Times, 9 de diciembre de 2009; the NYT article calls him an "atmospheric physicist".
- "Astrophysics: Capturing a Moon and Other Diversions", Time magazine, 21 de febrero de 1969, p. 2.
- Levy, Lillian. Space, Its Impact on Man and Society. Ayer Publishing 1973, p. xiii for general background.
- S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Science and Environmental Policy Project, visto 13 de mayo de 2010, for founding of SEPP.
- For an early article of Singer's on this issue, see Singer, S. Fred. "On Not Flying Into a Greenhouse Frenzy", The New York Times, 16 de noviembre 1989.
- "The Denial Machine", The Fifth Estate, CBC, 15 de noviembre de 2006, actualizado 24 de octubre de 2007.
- Also see Revkin, Andrew. "Skeptics Dispute Climate Worries and Each Other", The New York Times, 8 de marzo de 2009.
- Gray, Louise. "Fred Singer to speak at climate change sceptics conference", The Daily Telegraph, 18 de noviembre de 2009.
- Tierney, John. "Lessons from the Skeptics' Conference", The New York Times, 4 de marzo de 2008
- "The Denial Machine", The Fifth Estate, Canadian Broadcasting Corp. 15 de noviembre de 2006, actualizado 24 de octubre de 2007, 16:01–16:35 min Error en la cita: Etiqueta
<ref>no válida; el nombre "CBCsmoking" está definido varias veces con contenidos diferentes
- Oreskes, Naomi and Erik M. Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2010
- Singer, S. Fred. "The Revelle-Gore Story: Attempted Political Suppression of Science" in Michael Gough (ed.) Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking. Hoover Press, 2003.
- Stevens, William Kenneth. The Change in the Weather. Delta 2001, p. 245. Some of the details given by Scheuering and Stevens of Singer's flight from Vienna and the timing of it appear inconsistent.
- Singer, S. Fred (1949). The density spectrum and latitude dependence of extensive cosmic ray air showers. Princeton University.
- S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Science & Environmental Policy Project, accessed May 13, 2010; Smithsonian Institution Research Information Service. "S. Fred Singer Papers, 1953–1989 (bulk 1960–1980)", accessed May 15, 2010.
- For material about his supervisor and thesis committee, see Misner, Charles W. "John Archibald Wheeler and the recertification of General Relativity as True Physics", Universidad de Maryland, 3 de octubre 2006, visto 27 de julio 2013
- También ver Singer, S. Fred. "The Father of the H-Bomb Tells His Story", Hoover Digest 1, 2002, visto 15 de mayo 2010
- For his teaching while he obtained his degrees, and the title of his PhD thesis, see Scheuering 2004, pp. 116–117.
- Current biography yearbook, Volume 10, H. W. Wilson Company, 1956; S. Fred Singer, Ph.D., Science & Environmental Policy Project, accessed May 15, 2010.
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- "Satellite, MOUSE, Concept Model", Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, accessed May 15, 2010; for a diagram of the MOUSE and Baltimore News Post reference, see Diagram of MOUSE satellite, Corbis Images, accessed May 16, 2010.
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- "Maryland U. Fires Three New Rockets," The Washington Post, 8 de noviembre 1957.
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- "Md. U. Physicist Receives Award," The Washington Post, May 3, 1958: the reward was for his "widely recognized research contributions in the fields of cosmic rays, upper atmosphere and space flight, and for the recognition he has brought to university and government research organizations through his outstanding and prolific work."
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- Osmundsen, John A. "Scientist 'looks' 40,000 miles out", The New York Times, 30 de enero 1960.
- Plumb, Robert K. "Scientists' Calculations Indicate Shell of Dust Surrounding Earth", The New York Times, 28 de diciembre de 1960.
- "M.U. Professors get NASA grants," Associated Press, 22 de marzo de 1961.
- I. S. Shklovsky, The Universe, Life, and Mind, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow, 1962.
- Iosif S. Shklovski and Carl Sagan. Intelligent Life in the Universe, San Francisco: Holden-Day, 1966.
- S. F. Singer, "More on the Moons of Mars", Astronautics, February 1960, American Astronautical Society, page 16.
- E. J. Öpik, "News and Comments: Phobos, Nature of Acceleration". Irish Astronomical Journal 6: 40, March 1963.
- Mars Exploration Program: Mariner 8 & 9
- «Andrew Kelleher, "Phobos: the odd moon of Mars", in Alienation News #211 Nov 2002.» (PDF). Archivado desde el original el 28 de noviembre de 2015. Consultado el 26 de mayo de 2010.
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- Lehr, Jay H. Rational Readings on Environmental Concerns. John Wiley and Sons 1992, p. 393.
- Levy, Lillian. Space, Its Impact on Man and Society. Ayer Publishing 1973, p. xiii.
- Singer, S. Fred. The Changing Global Environment. Springer Publishers 1975, p. 401.
- Terte, Robert H. "A Dean for Earth and Space", The New York Times, March 15, 1964.
- Sullivan, Walter. "Scientists Trace Birth of Universe With Light Waves", The New York Times, 20 de diciembre 1965.
- Long duration exposure facility (LDEF) interplanetary dust experiment (IDE) impact detector results
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- Oreskes, Naomi and Erik M. Conway, "Chapter 3: Sowing the Seeds of Doubt," in Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2010: p66-106.
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- "First Israeli scud fatalities oil fires in Kuwait", Nightline, ABC News, 22 de enero 1991.
- The Washington Times. "When advocacy beclouds science," June 2, 1993; The Washington Times. "Mr. Gore in the balance," 2 de marzo 1994; Michael, Patrick J. Sound and fury: the science and politics of global warming. 1992.
- «Environmental Exposure Report: Oil Well Fires». U.S. Department of Defense. 2 de agosto de 2000. Consultado el 15 de septiembre de 2014.
- Hobbs PV, Radke LF (mayo de 1992). «Airborne studies of the smoke from the kuwait oil fires». Science 256 (5059): 987-91. doi:10.1126/science.256.5059.987. PMID 17795001.
- Brown, Seth. "'Merchants of Doubt' delves into contrarian scientists", USA Today, May 31, 2010.
- Biello, David and Pavlus, John. "Even Skeptics Admit Global Warming is Real", Scientific American, 18 de marzo 2008.
- Singer, S. Fred and Jeffreys, Kent. "The EPA and the Science of Environmental Tobacco Smoke", courtesy of the University of California, San Francisco, see page 18 for the authors, undated, accessed May 18, 2010. A prepublication draft of the report was archived in the files of Walter Woodson, Vice President-Public Affairs of the Tobacco Institute: scan (accessed Dec. 26 2012). Interestingly, when the report was released by the de Tocqueville institution as the first chapter of the report Science, Economics, and Environmental Policy: A Critical Examination, Singer's credit was changed from lead author to "reviewer."
- For the final version of the report, see "Science, Economics, and Environmental Policy: A Critical Examination", Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, August 11, 1994, accessed Dec. 26 2012
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- "The Denial Machine," 01:55 min, 13:12 min, 16:01–16:35 min
- Gibson, Owen and Adam, David. "Watchdog's verdict on Channel 4 climate film angers scientists", The Guardian, July 22, 2008.
- "The Denial Machine," 20:10 min
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- Michaels, P. J.; Singer, S. F.; Knappenberger, P. C. (27 de mayo de 1994). «Analyzing Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Is There a Trend?». Science 264 (5163): 1341-1342. doi:10.1126/science.264.5163.1341.
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- Parson, Edward A., and Dessler, Andrew E. The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate. Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 35–37.
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- Needall, Alan A. and DeVorkin, David. "Oral History Transcript—Dr. S. Fred Singer", Niels Bohr Library & Archives, Center for History of Physics, 23 de abril 1991
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- The Science & Environmental Policy Project, visto 13 de mayo 2010
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- Singer, S. Fred. "Environmental Strategies with Uncertain Science", Regulation 13(1), invierno 1990, Cato Institute
- Singer, S. Fred; Revelle, Roger; Starr, Chauncey. "What To Do about Greenhouse Warming: Look Before You Leap" Cosmos 5 ( 2, verano 1992)
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- Singer, S. Fred. (20 de septiembre de 1995). «Scientific integrity and public trust: the science behind federal policies and mandates: case study 1, stratospheric ozone, myths and realities». Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, September 20, 1995. Consultado el 23 de marzo de 2012.
- Singer, S. Fred.; Kent Jeffereys (10 de mayo de 1999). «The EPA and the science of environmental tobacco smoke (pwc42f00)». The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL). Consultado el 23 de marzo de 2012.
- Singer, S. Fred "Testimony of Prof. S. Fred Singer", Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Climate Change, 18 de julio de 2000, visto 16 de mayo de 2010
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- Smithsonian Institution Research Information Service. "S. Fred Singer Papers, 1953–1989 (bulk 1960–1980)", visto 15 de mayo de 2010
- Solomon, Lawrence. The Deniers. Richard Vigilante Books, 2008, pp. 194–198
- Sullivan, Walter. "Scientists Wonder If Shot Nears Moon", The New York Times, 5 de noviembre de 1957
- Woodwell, George M. and Holdren, John P. "Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong", The New York Times, 14 de noviembre de 1998
- Climate Change Reconsidered: The website of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC)
- Stratospheric ozone, myths and realities: Testimony of S. Fred Singer, Scientific Integrity and Public Trust: The Science Behind Federal Policies and Mandates: Case Study 1—Stratospheric Ozone: Myths and Realities, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Science, US House of Representatives, 104th Congress, 1.ª Ses. 20 de septiembre de 1995 [Nº. 31] (Washington, DC: US Gov. Printing Office, 1996)