Premio Wolf en Física

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El Premio Wolf en Física es un premio cientifico anual otorgado en Israel por la Fundación Wolf. Es uno de los seis Premios Wolf establecidos por la Fundación y adjudicados desde 1978; los otros son en Agricultura, Química, Matemáticas, Medicina y Artes.

Los Premios Wolf en física y química a menudo son considerados los premios más prestigiosos en esos campos después del premio Nobel.[1] [2] [3] El premio en física tiene ganado una reputación por anticipar futuros ganadores del Premio Nobel: de los 26 premios otorgados entre 1978 y 2010, catorce ganadores han llegado a obtener luego el Premio Nobel, cinco de ellos en el año siguiente.[2]

Laureados con el premio Wolf en física[editar]

En la tabla siguiente se recogen todos los laureados con el premio Wolf en Física.[4]

Galardonados con el premio Wolf en física
Año Nombre Nacionalidad Cita
1978 Chien-Shiung Wu Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
(Chino estadounidense[5] )
«por sus exploraciones de la interacción débil, ayudando a establecer la forma precisa y la no conservación de la paridad de esta fuerza natural».[6]
1979 George Eugene Uhlenbeck Flag of the Netherlands.svg Países Bajos (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos) «por su descubrimiento, junto con el fallecido Samuel Abraham Goudsmit, del espín del electrón».[7]
Giuseppe Occhialini Flag of Italy.svg Italia «por sus contribuciones a los descubrimientos de la producción de pares de electrones y del pión cargado».[8]
1980 Michael E. Fisher
Leo P. Kadanoff
Kenneth G. Wilson
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
«por desarrollos pioneros que culminaron en la teoría general del comportamiento crítico en transiciones entre las distintas fases termodinámicas de la materia».[9]
1981 Freeman J. Dyson
Gerard 't Hooft
Victor F. Weisskopf
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Países Bajos
Flag of Austria.svg Austria (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
«por sus destacadas contribuciones a la física teórica, especialmente en el desarrollo y aplicación de la teoría cuántica de campos».[10]
1982 Leon M. Lederman
Martin Lewis Perl
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
«por su descubrimiento experimental de nuevas partículas inesperadas estableciendo una tercera generación de quarks y leptones».[11]
1983/84 Erwin L. Hahn Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for his discovery of nuclear spin echoes and for the phenomenon of self-induced transparency.
Peter B. Hirsch Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido for his development of the utilization of the transmission electron microscope as a universal instrument to study the structure of crystalline matter.
Theodore H. Maiman Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for his realization of the first operating laser, the pulsed three level ruby laser.
1985 Conyers Herring
Philippe Nozieres
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Flag of France.svg Francia
for their major contributions to the fundamental theory of solids, especially of the behaviour of electrons in metals.
1986 Mitchell J. Feigenbaum Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for his pioneering theoretical studies demonstrating the universal character of non-linear systems, which has made possible the systematic study of chaos.
Albert J. Libchaber Flag of France.svg Francia (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos) for his brilliant experimental demonstration of the transition to turbulence and chaos in dynamic systems.
1987 Herbert Friedman Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for pioneering investigations in solar X-rays.
Bruno B. Rossi
Riccardo Giacconi
Flag of Italy.svg Italia (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
Flag of Italy.svg Italia (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
for the discovery of extra-solar X-ray sources and the elucidation of their physical processes.
1988 Roger Penrose
Stephen W. Hawking
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido
for their brilliant development of the theory of general relativity, in which they have shown the necessity for cosmological singularities and have elucidated the physics of black holes. In this work they have greatly enlarged our understanding of the origin and possible fate of the Universe.
1989 No concedido
1990 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
David J. Thouless
Flag of France.svg Francia
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
for a wide variety of pioneering contributions to our understanding of the organization of complex condensed matter systems, de Gennes especially for his work on macromolecular matter and liquid crystals and Thouless for his on disordered and low-dimensional systems.
1991 Maurice Goldhaber
Valentine L. Telegdi
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos;
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Suiza (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
for their separate seminal contributions to nuclear and particle physics, particularly those concerning the weak interactions involving leptons.
1992 Joseph H. Taylor Jr. Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for his discovery of an orbiting radio pulsar and its exploitation to verify the general theory of relativity to high precision.
1993 Benoît Mandelbrot Flag of France.svg Francia (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos) by recognizing the widespread occurrence of fractals and developing mathematical tools for describing them, he has changed our view of nature.
1994/95 Vitaly L. Ginzburg Flag of Russia.svg Rusia for his contributions to the theory of superconductivity and to the theory of high-energy processes in astrophysics.
Yoichiro Nambu Bandera de Japón Japón (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos) for his contribution to elementary particle theory, including recognition of the role played by spontaneous symmetry breaking in analogy with superconductivity theory, and the discovery of the color symmetry of the strong interactions.
1995/96 No concedido
1996/97 John Archibald Wheeler Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for his seminal contributions to black holes physics, to quantum gravity, and to the theories of nuclear scattering and nuclear fission.
1998 Yakir Aharonov
Michael V. Berry
Flag of Israel.svg Israel
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido
for the discovery of quantum topological and geometrical phases. specifically the Aharonov–Bohm effect, the Berry phase, and their incorporation into many fields of physics.
1999 Dan Shechtman Flag of Israel.svg Israel for the experimental discovery of quasi-crystals, non-periodic solids having long-range order, which inspired the exploration of a new fundamental state of matter.
2000 Raymond Davis, Jr.
Masatoshi Koshiba
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Bandera de Japón Japón
for their pioneering observations of astronomical phenomena by detection of neutrinos, thus creating the emerging field of neutrino astronomy.
2001 No concedido
2002/03 Bertrand I. Halperin
Anthony J. Leggett
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido (Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos)
for key insights into the broad range of condensed matter physics: Leggett on superfluidity of the light helium isotope and macroscopic quantum phenomena; and Halperin on two- dimensional melting, disordered systems and strongly interacting electrons.
2004 Robert Brout
François Englert
Peter W. Higgs
Flag of Belgium.svg Bélgica
Flag of Belgium.svg Bélgica
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reino Unido
for pioneering work that has led to the insight of mass generation whenever a local gauge symmetry is realized asymmetrically in the world of sub-atomic particles.
2005 Daniel Kleppner Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos for groundbreaking work in atomic physics of hydrogenic systems, including research on the hydrogen maser, Rydberg atoms and Bose–Einstein condensation.
2006/07 Albert Fert
Peter Grünberg
Flag of France.svg Francia
Flag of Germany.svg Alemania
for their independent discovery of the giant magnetoresistance phenomenon (GMR), thereby launching a new field of research and applications known as spintronics, which utilizes the spin of the electron to store and transport information.
2008 No concedido
2009 No concedido
2010 John F. Clauser
Alain Aspect
Anton Zeilinger
Flag of the United States.svg Estados Unidos
Flag of France.svg Francia
Flag of Austria.svg Austria
for their fundamental conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, specifically an increasingly sophisticated series of tests of Bell's inequalities, or extensions thereof, using entangled quantum states.
2011 Maximilian Haider
Harald Rose
Knut Urban
Flag of Austria.svg Austria
Flag of Germany.svg Alemania
Flag of Germany.svg Alemania
for their development of aberration-corrected electron microscopy, allowing the observation of individual atoms with picometer precision, thus revolutionizing materials science.
2012 Jacob D. Bekenstein Flag of Israel.svg Israel for his work on black holes.[12]
2013 Peter Zoller
Ignacio Cirac
Flag of Austria.svg Austria
Flag of Spain.svg España
for groundbreaking theoretical contributions to quantum information processing, quantum optics and the physics of quantum gases.
2014 No concedido

Notas y referencias[editar]

  1. "Wolf prize goes to particle theorists" Physicsworld.com January 20, 2004
  2. a b «Gongs away». Physics World (Bristol) 23 (11):  pp. 46–47. November 2010. 
  3. Basolo, F: From Coello to Inorganic Chemistry: A Lifetime of Reactions, page 65, Springer, 2002
  4. Wolf Prize Recipients in Physics Wolf Foundation
  5. The People's Republic of China does not recognise dual nationality. She was an American when she was awarded the prize.
  6. " for her explorations of the weak interaction, helping establish the precise form and the non-conservation of parity for this natural force".
  7. "for his discovery, jointly with the late S. A. Goudsmit, of the electron spin".
  8. "for his contributions to the discoveries of electron pair production and of the charged pion".
  9. "for pathbreaking developments culminating in the general theory of the critical behavior at transitions between the different thermodynamic phases of matter".
  10. "for their outstanding contributions to theoretical physics, especially in the development and application of the quantum theory of fields".
  11. "for their experimental discovery of unexpected new particles establishing a third generation of quarks and leptons.
  12. Institute for Advanced Study - Wolf Prize 2012

Enlaces externos[editar]