Rosie the Riveter

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El afiche de la propaganda We Can Do It! ('¡Podemos hacerlo!'), de la compañía Westinghouse Electric, fue creado por el artista gráfico J. Howard Miller en 1943.

Rosie the Riveter ('Rosie, la remachadora') es un ícono cultural de Estados Unidos que representa a las mujeres de ese país que trabajaban en fábricas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial,[1] [2] muchas de ellas produciendo municiones y suministros bélicos. A veces, estas mujeres aceptaban empleos totalmente nuevos, reemplazando a los hombres que estaban combatiendo en la guerra. El personaje de Rosie es considerado como un ícono feminista en Estados Unidos.[2]

Historia[editar]

El concepto de «Rosie the Riveter» apareció por primera vez en 1942 en la canción homónima escrita por Redd Evans y John Jacob Loeb. La pieza fue grabada por varios artistas, incluyendo al líder de banda Kay Kyser, convirtiéndose en un éxito a nivel nacional.[3] La canción describía a «Rosie» como una incansable trabajadora que hacía lo suyo para ayudar en el esfuerzo estadounidense durante la guerra.[2]

Las «Rosies» se encargaron de las labores dominadas por los hombres durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y a pesar de su voluntad de continuar a ejercer un oficio remunerado y los oficios en que se habían formado / especializado durante ese tiempo, cuando los hombres volvieron del combate se les obligó a ceder sus puestos a los soldados desmovilizados y se les relegó al rol tradicional de ama de casa o fueron orientadas hacia trabajos no especializados.

Rosie, la remachadora, estaba asociada a una mujer real, Rose Will Monroe, quien nació en 1920 en Pulaski County, Kentucky, para luego mudarse a Michigan durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

was most closely associated with a real woman, Rose Will Monroe, who was born in Pulaski County, Kentucky[6][7][8] in 1920 and moved to Michigan during World War II. She worked as a riveter at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory in Ypsilanti, Michigan, building B-29 and B-24 bombers for the U.S. Army Air Forces. Monroe achieved her dream of piloting a plane at the age of 50 and her love of flying resulted in an accident that contributed to her death 19 years later.[4] Monroe was asked to star in a promotional film about the war effort at home. The song "Rosie the Riveter" was popular at the time,[2] and Monroe happened to best fit the description of the worker depicted in the song.[9] Rosie went on to become perhaps the most widely recognized icon of that era. The films and posters she appeared in were used to encourage women to go to work in support of the war effort. According to the Encyclopedia of American Economic History, "Rosie the Riveter" inspired a social movement that increased the number of working American women to 20 million by 1944, a 57% increase from 1940.[citation needed] Although the image of "Rosie the Riveter" reflected the industrial work of welders and riveters during World War II, the majority of working women filled non-factory positions in every sector of the economy.What unified the experiences of these women was that they proved to themselves (and the country) that they could do a "man's job" and could do it well.[10] In 1942, just between the months of January and July, the estimates of the proportion of jobs that would be "acceptable" for women was raised by employers from 29 to 85%.[citation needed] African American women were some of those most affected by the need for women workers. It has been said that it was the process of whites working along blacks during the time that encouraged a breaking down of social barriers and a healthy recognition of diversity [10] African-Americans were able to lay the groundwork for the postwar civil rights revolution by equating segregation with Nazi white supremacist ideology.[10] Conditions were sometimes harsh and pay was not always equal—the average man working in a wartime plant was paid $54.65 per week, while women were paid about $50.[11] Nonetheless, women quickly responded to Rosie the Riveter, who convinced them that they had a patriotic duty to enter the workforce. Some claim that she forever opened the work force for women, but others dispute that point, noting that many women were discharged after the war and their jobs were given to returning servicemen.[citation needed] These critics claim that when peace returned, few women returned to their wartime positions and instead resumed domestic vocations or transferred into sex-typed occupations such as clerical and service work.[12] For some, World War II represented a major turning point for women as they eagerly supported the war effort, while other historians emphasize that the changes were temporary and that immediately after the war was over, women were expected to return to traditional roles of wives and mothers, and finally, a third group has emphasized how the long-range significance of the changes brought about by the war provided the foundation for the contemporary woman’s movement.[13] Leila J. Rupp in her study of World War II wrote "For the first time, the working woman dominated the public image. Women were riveting housewives in slacks, not mother, domestic beings, or civilizers."[14] After the war, the "Rosies" and the generations that followed them knew that working in the factories was in fact a possibility for women, even though they did not reenter the job market in such large proportions again until the 1970s. By that time factory employment was in decline all over the country.[citation needed] On October 14, 2000, the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park was opened in Richmond, California, site of four Kaiser shipyards, where thousands of "Rosies" from around the country worked (although ships at the Kaiser yards were not riveted, but rather welded).[15] Over 200 former Rosies attended the ceremony.[16][17][2] The documentary film The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter addresses the history of Rosie.


J. Howard Miller's "We Can Do It!", commonly mistaken to be Rosie the Riveter[18]


Norman Rockwell's Saturday Evening Post cover featuring Rosie the Riveter The image most iconically associated with Rosie is J. Howard Miller's famous poster for Westinghouse, titled We Can Do It!, which was modeled on the middle Michigan factory worker Geraldine Doyle in 1942, but this image was not actually intended to be Rosie the Riveter. Rosie the Riveter is a fictional character. -->

Homenajes[editar]

De acuerdo a Penny Colman, autora del libro Rosie the Riveter: Women Working on the Home Front in World War II, hubo otros íconos culturales similares a Rosie, como Wendy the Welder ('Wendy, la soldadora'), basada en Janet Doyle, una trabajadora del astillero Kaiser en Richmond, California, y Julie the Janitor (Julie, la conserje), una trabajadora de la Eastern Illinois University.

En los años 1960, la actriz de Hollywood Jane Withers se hizo conocida como Josephine the Plumber (Josephine, la plomera), un personaje que interpretó en los populares comerciales del polvo de limpieza Comet, los cuales fueron exhibidos hasta los años 70. Este personaje se basaba en la Rosie original, por lo que representa el esfuerzo de las mujeres por desempeñarse en trabajos tradicionalmente masculinos.[4]

Más recientemente, las referencias culturales a Rosie vienen de diferentes expresiones. Por ejemplo, en el videojuego BioShock hay un personaje llamado «Rosie» que está armado con una pistola de remaches. De manera similar, en una historieta de DC Comics, el personaje de «Rosie» también usa una pistola de remaches como arma. En el videojuego Fallout 3 hay vallas publicitarias que muestran a Rosies ensamblando bombas mientras beben Nuka-Cola. En el ámbito musical, cantantes como Christina Aguilera y Pink han rememorado a Rosie en sus videos «Candyman» y «Raise Your Glass», respectivamente. La actriz Alexis Bledel también posó como Rosie en una sesión fotográfica de íconos estadounidenses para la revista Glamour en el año 2009.[5] En el 2011, la figura televisiva y empresaria Kris Jenner protagonizó la campaña publicitaria Great Women in History para la marca Poise, la cual produce toallas higiénicas para mujeres con incontinencia urinaria.[6] En el 2012, durante el The MDNA Tour, gira de la cantante estadounidense Madonna, Rosie aparece en las pantallas durante la interpretación de «Express Yourself».

Referencias[editar]

  1. Cullen, Kevin (30 de mayo de 2004). «Rosie's proud of her band of sisters». The Seattle Times (en inglés). Consultado el 5 de mayo de 2010. 
  2. a b c Harvey, Sheridan (1 de agosto de 2006). «Rosie the Riveter: Real Women Workers in World War II». Biblioteca del Congreso de Estados Unidos (en inglés). Consultado el 5 de mayo de 2010. 
  3. Marcano, Tony (2 de junio de 1997). «Famed Riveter In War Effort, Rose Monroe Dies at 77». The New York Times (en inglés). Consultado el 6 de mayo de 2010. 
  4. «Josephine the Plumber». I Remember JFK (en inglés). Consultado el 14 de junio de 2012. 
  5. Spencer, Amy (Marzo de 2009). «American Icons». Glamour (en inglés). Consultado el 14 de junio de 2012. 
  6. «Kris Jenner Poses As Rosie The Riveter». Splash News (en inglés). 4 de abril de 2011. Consultado el 10 de diciembre de 2012. 

Enlaces externos[editar]