Agüeybaná II

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Agüeybaná II
Estatua de Agüeybaná II, El Bravo, en el Parque Monumento a Agüeybaná II, El Bravo, en Ponce, Puerto Rico (DSC02672C).jpg
Conflictos Taino rebellion of 1511
Información
Nacimiento 1470
Puerto Rico
Fallecimiento 1511
Puerto Rico
Causa de muerte muerto en combate

Agüeybaná II (c. 1470 – 1511), nacido con el nombre de Güeybaná también conocido como Agüeybaná El Bravo, fue uno de los más poderosos caciques del pueblo taíno en "Borikén" cuando los españoles llegaron a Puerto Rico el 19 de noviembre, 1493. Agüeybaná II guio a los taínos de Puerto Rico en la Batalla de Yagüecas, también conocida como la "rebelión taína de 1511" contra Juan Ponce de Leóns.[1]

Etimología[editar]

Agüeybaná, que fue interpretando por autores del siglo XIX y XX como "El Gran Sol", fue el título hereditario compartido por la familia que reinaba la monarquía teocrática de Borikén, gobernando la jerarquía sobre el resto de caciques. Como otros reconocimientos en la cultura taína, era heredada a través de la sangre materna. Los españoles hispanizaron el título para que fuera equivalente al del concepto europeo de los reyes, con escritores contemporáneos como Juan de Castellanos utilizando el título Rey Agüeybana después de heredarlo de su hermano y convertirse en el segundo monarca en guiar a los taínos durante la década de 1510.[2][1][3][4]

Llegada de los Conquistadores[editar]

Agüeybaná recibió al conquistador español Juan Ponce de León en 1508. De acuerdo a la antigua tradición taína, Agüeybaná practicaba el "guaytiao", un ritual taíno en el que él y Juan Ponce de León se hicieron amigos.[5]​ La hospitalidad que los españoles recibieron de Agüeybaná hizo que los españoles pudieran conquistar la isla con mayor facilidad.[3]​ Las acciones de Agüeybaná lo ayudaron a mantener la paz entre taínos y españoles, una paz que no duró mucho.[3]

Rebelión Taína de 1511[editar]

Upon the senior Agüeybaná's death in 1510, his brother [1][3]​ Güeybaná (better known as Agüeybaná II) became the most powerful Cacique in the entire island. Agüeybaná II had his doubts about the "godly" status of the Spaniards. He came up with a plan to test the perceived godly nature of the Spanish: he and Urayoán (cacique of Añasco) sent some of their tribe members to lure a Spaniard by the name of Diego Salcedo into a river and drown him. They watched over Salcedo's body to make sure that he would not resuscitate. Salcedo's death was enough to convince him and the rest of the Taíno people that the Spaniards were not gods.[1][3]

Agüeybaná II, held Areytos (war dances) or secret meetings with others caciques where he organized a revolt against the Spaniards. Cristobal de Sotomayor sent a spy, Juan González, to one of the Areitos where he learned of Agüeybaná's plans.[6]​ In spite of the warning, Agüeybana II killed Sotomayor and his men, and gravely wounded González. Juan González escaped making his way to Caparra where he reported the killings to Ponce de León.[7]​ Meanwhile, Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, attacked the village of Sotomayor (present day Aguada) and killed eighty of its inhabitants. [8]​ After this, Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives against the Tainos that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas.[9]

The Agüeybaná II ("El Bravo") Park in Ponce, Puerto Rico

Muerte[editar]

In 1511, in the region known as Yagüecas some 11,000 to 15,000 Taínos had assembled against some 80 to 100 Spaniards.[5]​ Before the start of the battle, a Spanish soldier using an arquebus shot and killed a native.[10]​ It is presumed this was Agüeybaná II, because the warrior was wearing a golden necklace which only a cacique wore.[11]

Después de la batalla[editar]

After the death of Agüeybaná II, the native warriors retracted and became disorganized.[5]​ Agüeybaná II's followers opted for engaging the Spaniards via guerilla tactics.[5]​ Such guerilla warfare rebellion lasted for next 8 years, until 1519.[12]​ A second round of raids erupted in 1513 when Ponce de Leon departed the island to explore Florida. The settlement of Caparra, the seat of the island government at that time, was sacked and burned by an alliance between Taínos and natives from the northeastern Antilles.[10]

By 1520 the Taíno presence in the Island had almost disappeared. A government census in 1530 reports the existence of only 1,148 Taínos remaining in Puerto Rico.[13]​ However, oppressive conditions for the surviving Taíno continued. Many of those who stayed on the island soon died of either the cruel treatment that they had received or of the smallpox epidemic, which had attacked the island in 1519.[3][14]

Legado[editar]

Plaque at Agüeybaná II ("El Bravo") Park in sector Caracoles, Barrio Playa, Ponce, Puerto Rico

Agüeybaná II is admired in Puerto Rico for his loyalty to his people. Puerto Rico has named many public buildings and streets after him:

  • The City of Bayamón has named a high school after him.
  • There is a street in Caguas that honors him.
  • An avenue in the Hato Rey area of San Juan is named after Agüeybaná.
  • Puerto Rico once had an equivalent to the Oscars which was awarded annually and was called the "Agüeybaná de Oro" (The Golden Agüeybaná), in honor of the great cacique.[15]
  • In the "Caracoles" sector of barrio Playa in Ponce, Puerto Rico, there is a small park with a statue depicting Agüeybaná II, "El Bravo" (The Brave). It is located on the southeast corner of the intersection of Ponce By-pass (PR-2) and Avenida Hostos (PR-123).
  • Poet Daniel de Rivera composed a poem titled "Agüeybaná El Bravo" dedicated to him. It partially reads:[16]
"¡Ea, compañeros! Vamos al combate:
Honor la patria a defender nos llama;
Si en paz, contento el corazón no late
La guerra nos dará fortuna y fama;
Hasta la mar que nuestra costa bate
Ondas escupe y agitada brama,
Que cual nosotros contemplar quisiera
Libre esta perla de la gente ibera."

Referencias[editar]

  1. a b c d La Rebelión del Cacique Agüeybaná II. En Marcha: Órgano del Comité Central del Partido Comunista Marxista Leninista de Ecuador. Sección: Testimonio y Dialéctica. 8 de mayo del 2006. Página 1.
  2. Elegias de Varones illustres de Indias. Juan de Castellanos. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles: Desde la Formacion del Lenguaje Hasta Nuestros Dias. (Commissioned by D. Buenaventura Carlos Aribau.) Second Edition. Madrid: M. Rivadeneyra. p. 125. 1857. Accessed 23 July 2017.
  3. a b c d e f Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> no válida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas a
  4. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> no válida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas b
  5. a b c d Del mito al hito: la defensa de los taínos. Héctor L. Sánchez. La Perla del Sur. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 26 December 2012. (Title in printed version: "Del mito al hito: Conozca la brave defensa de los tainos." Year 31. Issue 1517. Page 28.) Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  6. Puerto Rico y su historia: Investigaciones críticas. Salvador Brau. Valencia, España: Imprenta Francisco Vives Mora. 1894. Pages 64 and 180. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  7. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. W. H. Holmes. 25th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 1903–1904. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1907. Page 38. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  8. Puerto Rico in the Great Depression: History. Archivado el 5 de noviembre de 2007 en la Wayback Machine. "Puerto Rico: A Guide to the Island of Boriquén." Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration in Cooperation with the Writer's Program of the Work Projects Administration. 1940. (Federal Writers Project, 1940.) New York: The University Society, Inc. (American Guide Series) p. 36-67. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  9. Historical Overview of Colonial Puerto Rico_The Importance of San Juan as a Military Outpost.doc A Historical Overview of Colonial Puerto Rico: The Importance of San Juan as a Military Outpost.Uso incorrecto de la plantilla enlace roto (enlace roto disponible en Internet Archive; véase el historial y la última versión). National Park Service. San Juan National Historic Site. History and Culture. no date. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  10. a b Caciques and Cemí Idols: The Web Spun by Taíno Rulers Between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. José R. Oliver. The University of Alabama Press. 2009. Page 4. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  11. El Mito de la Muerte de Agueybana: y de los Caciques Colaboradoes Caguax y Don Alfonso. Francisco Moscoso. Revista ICP. Year 10. Number 20. Page 46. 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  12. Caciques and Cemí Idols: The Web Spun by Taíno Rulers Between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. José R. Oliver. The University of Alabama Press. 2009. Pages 4, 41. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  13. Puerto Rico. Yale University. Genocide Studies Program. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  14. «Puerto Rico's First People». Archivado desde el original el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Consultado el 20 de marzo de 2019. 
  15. El Gran Combo. Music of Puerto Rico. (Reference to the "Agüeybaná de Oro".) Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  16. Socorro Giron. Ponce, el Teatro La Perla, y la Campana de la Almudaina. Gobierno Municipal de Ponce. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 1992. Page 71. LOC Number: 85-90989.