Ateísmo militante

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El ateísmo militante es un término aplicado al ateísmo que considera la religión como algo falso y además pernicioso.[1][2][3][4][5][6]​ El ateísmo militante tiene al ateísmo como doctrina a propagar[2]​ y difiere del ateísmo moderado en sostener que la religión es dañina para el individuo y la sociedad.[1][2][3]

El ateísmo militante puede ser individual, colectivo o establecerse a escala de un país. Su ejecución se limita solamente a la crítica hacia la religión.

El concepto y término ateo militante ha sido utilizado desde 1894[7]​ y se ha aplicado a pensadores políticos.[8]​ El ateísmo militante fue una parte integral del materialismo dialéctico del marxismo-leninismo[9][10]​ y significativo en la Revolución francesa[11]​ y en Estados ateos como la Unión Soviética[12][13]​ y la revolución cultural china.[14]

Richard Dawkins en un discurso sobre darwinismo y ateísmo que pronunció en TED en 2002 instó a su audiencia a practicar el «ateísmo militante»: «salir del armario» (es decir, afirmar públicamente su ateísmo) y difundir el ateísmo.[15]​ No obstante, también se utiliza de forma peyorativa, como se ha hecho recientemente para calificar a ateos tales como Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett o Victor Stenger, los ideólogos del movimiento conocido como Nuevo ateísmo.[16][17][18][19]​ Se ha criticado este uso por activistas como Dave Niose, quien piensa que el término se utiliza indiscriminadamente para una persona atea que cuestione a la autoridad religiosa o exprese de palabra su punto de vista sobre la existencia de Dios.[20]

Véase también[editar]

Notas y referencias[editar]

  1. a b Julian Baggini (2009). Atheism. Sterling Publishing. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2011. «Militant Atheism: Atheism which is actively hostile to religion I would call militant. To be hostile in this sense requires more than just strong disagreement with religion—it requires something verging on hatred and is characterized by a desire to wipe out all forms of religious beliefs. Militant atheists tend to make one or both of two claims that moderate atheists do not. The first is that religion is demonstrably false or nonsense, and the second is that is usually or always harmful. (El ateísmo militante: El ateísmo que es activamente hostil a la religión yo lo denominaría "militante". Para ser hostil en este sentido requiere algo más que un fuerte desacuerdo con la religión: requiere algo que raya en el odio y se caracteriza por un deseo de acabar con todas las formas de creencias religiosas. Los "ateos militantes" tienden a hacer una o dos reclamaciones que los ateos moderados no hacen. La primera es que la religión es demostrablemente falsa o sin sentido, y la segunda es que es generalmente o siempre perjudicial.)». 
  2. a b c Karl Rahner (1975). Encyclopædia of Theology: A Concise Sacramentum Mundi. Continuum International Publishing Group. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2011. «ATHEISM: A. IN PHILOSOPHY: I. Concept and incidence. Philosophically speaking, atheism means denial of the existence of God or of any possibility of knowing God. In those who hold this theoretical atheism, it may be tolerant (and even deeply concerned), if it has no missionary aims; it is "militant" when it regards itself as a doctrine to be propagated for the happiness of mankind and combats every religion as a harmful aberration. (ATEISMO: A. EN FILOSOFÍA: I. Concepto e incidencia. Filosóficamente hablando, el ateísmo significa la negación de la existencia de Dios o de cualquier posibilidad de conocer a Dios. Aquellos que sostienen este ateísmo teórico, pueden ser tolerantes (e incluso profundamente preocupados), si no tiene objetivos misioneros; es "militante" cuando se considera a sí misma como una doctrina a ser propagada para la felicidad de la humanidad y combate a toda religión como una aberración perjudicial.)». 
  3. a b Kerry S. Walters (2010). Atheism. Continuum International Publishing Group. Consultado el 10 de marzo de 2011. «Both positive and negative atheism may be further subdivided into (i) militant and (ii) moderate varieties. Militant atheists, such as physicist Steven Weinberg, tend to think that God-belief is not only erroneous but pernicious. Moderate atheists agree that God-belief is unjustifiable, but see nothing inherently pernicious in it. What leads to excess, they argue, is intolerant dogmatism and extremism, and these are qualities of ideologies in general, religious or nonreligious. (Tanto el ateísmo positivo y negativo pueden subdividirse en dos variedades: (i) militante y (ii) moderado. Los ateos militantes, como el físico Steven Weinberg, tienden a pensar que la creencia en un dios no sólo es errónea, sino perniciosa. Los ateos moderados coinciden en que la creencia en dios es injustificable, pero no ven nada inherentemente pernicioso en él. Lo que conduce a un exceso, en su opinión, es el dogmatismo intolerante y el extremismo, y estas son cualidades de las ideologías en general, religiosas o no religiosas.)». 
  4. Phil Zuckerman (2009). Atheism and Secularity: Issues, Concepts, and Definitions. ABC-CLIO. Consultado el 10 de marzo de 2011. «In contrast, militant atheism, as advocated by Lenin and the Russian Bolsheviks, treats religion as the dangerous opium and narcotic of the people, a wrong political ideology serving the interests of antirevolutionary forces; thus force may be necessary to control or eliminate religion. ("Por el contrario, el ateísmo militante, como preconizan Lenin y los bolcheviques rusos, trata a la religión como opio y peligroso narcótico de la gente, una ideología política equivocada al servicio de los intereses de las fuerzas anti-revolucionarias; por tanto, puede ser necesario la fuerza para controlar o eliminar la religión")». 
  5. Yang, Fenggang (2004). «Between Secularist Ideology and Desecularizing Reality: The Birth and Growth of Religious Research in Communist China». Sociology of Religion 65 (2): 101-119. «Scientific atheism is the theoretical basis for tolerating religion while carrying out atheist propaganda, whereas militant atheism leads to antireligious measures. In practice, almost as soon as it took power in 1949, the CCP followed the hard line of militant atheism. Within a decade, all religions were brought under the iron control of the Party: Folk religious practices considered feudalist superstitions were vigorously suppressed; cultic or heterodox sects regarded as reactionary organizations were resolutely banned; foreign missionaries, considered part of Western imperialism, were expelled; and major world religions, including Buddhism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism, were coerced into "patriotic" national associations under close supervision of the Party. Religious believers who dared to challenge these policies were mercilessly banished to labor camps, jails, or execution grounds. (El ateísmo científico es la base teórica para tolerancia de la religión mientras lleva a cabo propaganda atea, mientras que el ateísmo militante da lugar a medidas de lucha contra religión. En la práctica, casi tan pronto como tomó el poder en 1949, el PCC siguió la línea dura del ateísmo militante. En una década, todas las religiones fueron colocadas bajo el control férreo del Partido: las prácticas religiosas populares consideradas como supersticiones o feudalismo fueron reprimidas enérgicamente; las sectas de culto heterodoxo o consideradas como organizaciones reaccionarias fueron decididamente prohibidas; misioneros extranjeros, considerados parte del imperialismo occidental, fueron expulsados; y las principales religiones del mundo, incluyendo el budismo, el islam, el catolicismo y el protestantismo, fueron obligados a formar asociaciones nacionales "patrióticas" bajo estrecha supervisión de el Partido. Los creyentes religiosos que se atrevieron a desafiar estas políticas fueron expulsados sin piedad a campos de trabajo, cárceles, o motivos de ejecución.)». 
  6. Yang, Fenggang (2006). «The Red, Black, and Gray Markets of Religion in China». The Sociological Quarterly 47 (1): 93-122. Archivado desde el original el 12 de agosto de 2011. «In contrast, militant atheism, as advocated by Lenin and the Russian Bolsheviks, treats religion as a dangerous narcotic and a troubling political ideology that serves the interests of antirevolutionary forces. As such, it should be suppressed or eliminated by the revolutionary force. On the basis of scientific atheism, religious toleration was inscribed in CCP policy since its early days. By reason of militant atheism, however, atheist propaganda became ferocious, and the power of “proletarian dictatorship” was invoked to eradicate the reactionary ideology (Dai 2001)». 
  7. George William Foote (1894). «Flowers of Freethought». Nabu Press. Consultado el 9 de julio de 2011. «At the same time, however, we admit that militant Atheism is still, as of old, an offence to the superfine sceptics who desire to stand well with the great firm of Bumble and Grundy, as well as to the vast army of priests and preachers who have a professional interest in keeping heresy "dark," and to the ruling and privileged classes, who feel that militant Atheism is a great disturber of the peace which is founded on popular superstition and injustice. (Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, se admite que el ateísmo militante sigue siendo, como antes, una ofensa a los escépticos "superfinos" que desean quedar bien con la gran firma de Bumble y Grundy, así como a la gran multitud de sacerdotes y predicadores que tienen un interés profesional en mantener la herejía "en la oscuridad", así como las clases dirigentes y privilegiadas, que sienten que el ateísmo militante es un gran perturbador de la paz que se funda en la superstición popular y la injusticia.)». 
  8. Rodney Stark; Roger Finke (2000). «Acts of Faith: explaining the human side of religion». University of California Press. Consultado el 16 de julio de 2011. «The militant atheism of the early social scientists was motivated partly by politics. As Jeffrey Hadden reminds us, the social sciences emerged as part of a new political "order that was at war with the old order" (1987, 590). (El ateísmo militante de los primeros científicos sociales fue motivado en parte por la política. Como Jeffrey Hadden nos recuerda, las ciencias sociales surgieron como parte de un nuevo orden político que estaba en guerra con el viejo orden.)». 
  9. Harold Joseph Berman (1993). Faith and Order: The Reconciliati oyn of Law and Religion. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. Consultado el 9 de julio de 2011. «One fundamental element of that system was its propagation of a doctrine called Marxism-Leninism, and one fundamental element of that doctrine was militant atheism. Until only a little over three years ago, militant atheism was the official religion, one might say, of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party was the established church in what might be called an theocratic state. (Un elemento fundamental de este sistema es su propagación de una doctrina llamada marxismo-leninismo, y un elemento fundamental de esa doctrina era el ateísmo militante. Hasta hace sólo un poco más de tres años, el ateísmo militante fue la "religión oficial", se podría decir, de la Unión Soviética y el Partido Comunista era la iglesia establecida en el lo que podría llamarse un "estado teocrático".)». 
  10. J. D. Van der Vyver, John Witte (1996). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Legal Perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Consultado el 9 de julio de 2011. «For seventy years, from the Bolshevik Revolution to the closing years of the Gorbachev regime, militant atheism was the official religion, one might say, of the Soviet Union, and the Communist Party was, in effect, the established church. It was an avowed task of the Soviet state, led by the Communist Party, to root out from the minds and hearts of the Soviet state, all belief systems other than Marxism-Leninism.» 
  11. Alister E. McGrath. The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. Random House. Consultado el 5 de marzo de 2011. «So was the French Revolution fundamentally atheist? There is no doubt that such a view is to be found in much Christian and atheist literature on the movement. Cloots was at the forefront of the dechristianization movement that gathered around the militant atheist Jacques Hébert. He "debaptised" himself, setting aside his original name of Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce. For Cloots, religion was simply not to be tolerated.» 
  12. Gerhard Simon (1974). Church, State, and Opposition in the U.S.S.R.. University of California Press. Consultado el 9 de julio de 2011. «On the other hand the Communist Party has never made any secret of the fact, either before or after 1917, that it regards 'militant atheism' as an integral part of its ideology and will regard 'religion as by no means a private matter'. It therefore uses 'the means of ideological influence to educate people in the spirit of scientific materialism and to overcome religious prejudices..' Thus it is the goal of the C.P.S.U. and thereby also of the Soviet state, for which it is after all the 'guiding cell', gradually to liquidate the religious communities.» 
  13. Simon Richmond (2006). Russia & Belarus. BBC Worldwide. Consultado el 9 de julio de 2011. «Soviet 'militant atheism' led to the closure and destruction of nearly all the mosques and madrasahs (Muslim religious schools) in Russia, although some remained in the Central Asian states. Under Stalin there were mass deportations and liquidation of the Muslim elite.» 
  14. The Price of Freedom Denied: Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge Studies in Social Theory, Religion and Politics). Cambridge University Press. Consultado el 5 de marzo de 2011. «Seeking a complete annihilation of religion, places of worship were shut down; temples, churches, and mosques were destroyed; artifacts were smashed; sacred texts were burnt; and it was a criminal offence even to possess a religious artifact or sacred text. Atheism had long been the official doctrine of the Chinese Communist Party, but this new form of militant atheism made every effort to eradicate religion completely.» 
  15. Richard Dawkins on militant atheism, TED Talks, febrero de 2002

    I believe a true understanding of Darwinism is deeply corrosive to religious faith. Now, it may sound as though I'm about to preach atheism, and I want to reassure you that that's not what I'm going to do. In an audience as sophisticated as this one, that would be preaching to the choir. No, instead, what I want to urge upon you is militant atheism.

    We need a consciousness-raising, coming-out campaign for American atheists. This could be similar to the campaign organized by homosexuals a few years ago (...). In most cases, people who out themselves will help to destroy the myth that there is something wrong with atheists.

  16. Elaine A. Heath (2008). «Mystic Way of Evangelism». Baker Academic. Consultado el 19 de julio de 2011. «Richard Dawkins's Foundation for Reason and Science is out to debunk religion, which Dawkins calls "the God delusion." His book of the same title is a best seller, and Dawkins is not alone. Sam Harris, Daniel C. Den-nett, Victor J. Stenger, and Christopher Hitchens are only a handful of militant atheists who are convinced Christianity is toxic to human life.» 
  17. Marcelo Gleiser (2010). «A Tear at the Edge of Creation». Simon & Schuster. Consultado el 26 de julio de 2011. «Scientists such as Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris, philosopher Daniel Dennett, and British journalist and polemicist Christopher Hitchens, a group sometimes referred to as "the Four Horsemen," have taken the offensive, deeming religious belief a form of "delusion," a dangerous kind of collective madness that has wreaked havoc upon the world for millennia. Their rhetoric is the emblem of a militant radical atheism, a view I believe is as inflammatory and intolerant as that of the religious fundamentalists they criticize.» 
  18. Fiala, Andrew. «Militant atheism, pragmatism, and the God-shaped hole». International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 65 (3): 139-51. 
  19. Michael Babcock (2008). «Unchristian America». Tyndale House. Consultado el 26 de julio de 2011. «MILITANT ATHEISM The change in tone is most evident in the writings of the so-called New Atheists-Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens-men who have been trying to accelerate a process that's been under way for centuries.» 
  20. Dave Niose (2011). «The Myth of Militant Atheism». Psychology Today. Consultado el 26 de julio de 2011. «When the media and others refer to a "militant atheist," the object of that slander is usually an atheist who had the nerve to openly question religious authority or vocally express his or her views about the existence of God.» 

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