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El salto delantero y la rueda de pared

El Freerunning (en español carrera libre)es la practica de las acrobacias humanas urbanas en la que los participantes, conocidos como freerunners, utiliza el paisaje rural o urbano para crear acrobacias con sus extructuras. Incorpora los movimientos eficientes del parkour. Trara del movimiento en el aire y saltos peligrosos, la creación de una manera deportiva y estética de movimiento. Es una práctica común en los gimnasios y en las zonas urbanas (como ciudades o pueblos), que están llenas de obstáculos. También de otra forma se le puede denominar Parkour.

El freerunning de término fue propuesto durante la filmación de una película llamada Jump London, como una manera de presentar el parkour. Sin embargo, el freerunning ha llegado a representar un concepto separado, claramente diferente de parkour - una distinción que a menudo se pierden debido a las similitudes estéticas. el Parkour como disciplina hace hincapié en la técnica del cuerpo, mientras que freerunning incorpora una completa libertad de movimiento, he incluye muchas maniobras acrobáticas. Aunque los dos son a menudo físicamente similares, la física de cada uno son muy diferentes.


El fundador y creador de freerunning, Sebastien Foucan, define el freerunning como una disciplina para el desarrollo personal, siguiendo su propio camino, la forma de expresar de como una persona crea su propio camino.


{{merge|Parkour|discuss=Talk:Parkour#Merge_with_freerunning|date=June 2011}}

Dash vault and wallspin

Free running or freerunning is a form of urban acrobatics in which participants, known as free runners, use the city and rural landscape to perform movements through its structures. It incorporates efficient movements from parkour, and adds aesthetic vaults and other acrobatics, such as tricking and street stunts, creating an athletic and aesthetically pleasing way of moving. It is commonly practiced at gymnasiums and in urban areas (such as cities or towns) that are cluttered with obstacles.

The term free running was coined during the filming of Jump London, as a way to present parkour to the English-speaking world. However, the term free running has come to represent a separate concept, distinctly different from parkour — a distinction which is often missed due to the aesthetic similarities. Parkour as a discipline emphasizes efficiency, whilst free running embodies complete freedom of movement — and includes many acrobatic maneuvers. Although the two are often physically similar, the mindsets of each are vastly different.[1]

The founder and creator of free running, Sébastien Foucan, defines free running as a discipline to self development, following your own way,[2]​ which he developed because he felt that parkour lacked enough creativity and self-expression as a definition of each free-runner to follow your own way.[3]

Overview[editar]

Free running was inspired by parkour and developed by urban teenagers, which are considered by the parkour community to be inefficient and not parkour. They may jump from building to building, scale walls, and a lot of other maneuvers that they perform. Initially, the term "free running" was used by Channel 4 in their documentaries called 'Jump London' and 'Jump Britain' in an attempt to "translate" the word parkour to the English speaking people. Although Free running is a slightly different sport as it is not all about efficiency and is more about an art and finding your own way (be it the use of acrobatics, parkour, etc.). Also, one of the world-wide recognized founders of parkour, Jesus Cardenas said that free running is more about finding your own way, and free running is what he called his own way.[4]​ However, as free runners became interested in aesthetics as well as useful movement, the two became different disciplines. The term Freerunning was created by Guillaume Pelletier and embraced by Sebastien Foucan to describe his "way" of doing parkour.[2]​ Foucan summarizes the goals of Freerunning as using the environment to develop yourself and to always keep moving and not go backwards.

While Freerunning and parkour share many common techniques, they have a fundamental difference in philosophy and intention. The main aim of parkour is the ability to quickly access areas that would otherwise be inaccessible and the ability to escape pursuers, which means the main intention is to clear their objects as efficiently as they can, while Freerunning emphasizes self development by "following your way".[2]​ Foucan frequently mentions "following your way" in interviews,[5]​ and the Jump documentaries. He explains that everyone has their way of doing parkour and they shouldn't follow someone elses way of doing it, instead they should do it their way. Freerunning is commonly misinterpreted as being solely focused on aesthetics and the beauty of a certain vault, jump, etc. Although many free runners choose to focus on aesthetics, that is just "their way", the goal however is still self development. Practitioners might also do certain movements solely for their aesthetic value, the challenge of execution, and as a way of testing oneself physically and mentally, to see if one was 'strong' (hence the Lingala term Yamakasi meaning 'strong man, strong spirit').

Basic movements[editar]

Moves specific to free running are not easy to define, as most free runners use a combination of street stunts and parkour techniques. Free running focuses on freedom and beauty of movements, so many parkour techniques, such as vaults, may be carried out in a more aesthetically pleasing way, despite the fact that it may decrease the efficiency of the move.

Street stunts tend to be performed on flat ground or off a height, whereas free running movements tend to involve the use of obstacles or the general idea of movement from one place to another.

Due to the nature of free running, moves can be subject to the environment as well as ones own interpretation. Because of this there is virtually a limitless amount of "moves" one can perform. Some basic examples of movements which are more likely to be classed as free running moves than parkour or street stunts include:

For the list of Parkour Basic Movements see:

Name Description
Dash Vault Vaulting your body over a platform using your arms for forward momentum.
Diving Frontflip/Eagle Flip/Superman Flip A frontflip is executed over a wall or other obstacle, usually with a large drop on the other side. It is referred to as a diving frontflip (or dive front) because the athlete is required to dive over the obstacle before initiating the tuck.
Dive Roll When jumping, dive body forward landing into a roll on ground.
Kong Vault/Monkey Vault Vaulting your body over a railing or platform using your palms for momentum to push off.
Reverse Kong Vault Instead of vaulting over a railing with a Monkey Vault, which may be the most efficient way, the athlete adds a 360 degree spin along the horizontal axis to make the movement more aesthetically pleasing, as well as increasing their coordination.
Turn Vault Vaulting over a wall or platform while turning your body 180 degrees to jump down.
Wall Flip The athlete runs to a wall, places a foot on, and does a backflip off of the wall.
Wall Spin The athlete runs to a wall, jumps, places both hands on the wall, and vertically rotates 360 degrees while remaining in contact with the wall. Pushing off with one hand helps the rotation.

Free Running and Parkour[editar]

Another contentious issue that may either continue to make a rift between the parkour and the free running communities or possibly strengthen their bond is the idea of professional and amateur competition. From the start the parkour community has been always against the idea of serious competition as it violates the foundations of the philosophy of parkour. Sebastien Foucan mentions in an interview that although they do hold competitions, he doesn't like competition, and it's not "his way", but it may be someone else's "way".[5]

The perceived conflict between free running and parkour occurred when the term parkour was translated as free running for the English-speaking public, and the perception arose that they were separate disciplines. Some state that free running is a variation on parkour, and that the definitions are interchangeable. This argument has validity due to the fact that the creators never specifically defined the disciplines as "separate". However, free running does employ superfluous movements which would seem to be in conflict with the original ideology of parkour.

Media[editar]

Film[editar]

Listed by year of release.

  • Many martial arts films produced in Hong Kong in the 1980s, particularly the ones involving Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung, Yuen Biao, and the Hong Kong martial art stunt teams, often used freerunning like flips, stunts and movements mixed into modern martial arts fight choreographies.
  • The French film Taxi (1998), produced by Luc Besson, features the first on-screen appearance of freerunning. Besson's film Banlieue 13 continues on-screen examples.
  • The French film Yamakasi-Les samourais des temp modernes (2001), and its sequel are about a group of titular free running specialists.
  • The 2003 Thai film Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior starring Tony Jaa contains various scenes of free running and parkour coupled with Muay Thai fighting.
  • The 2003 documentary Jump London and 2005 sequel Jump Britain follow French freerunners such as Sébastien Foucan, Johann Vigroux and Jérôme Ben Aoues.
  • The 2006 Casino Royale features an extended chase scene between Bond and Molaka - Molaka being played by Sébastien Foucan, who also co-directed the sequence.
  • Punisher War Zone (2008) featured corrupt freerunning gangsters called Urban Freeflow gang.
  • You Don't Mess with the Zohan (2008) depicted Israeli super-agent Zohan free-running through the streets and rooftops throughout the early sequence of his hunt for The Phantom.
  • The 2010 film Prince of Persia starring Jake Gyllenhaal featured freerunning and parkour stunts throughout the movie's locations.
  • Parkour was featured in a scene of the Bruce Willis 2010 film Cop Out when Seann William Scott's character Dave is freerunning on top of a house's roof. Tracey Morgan's character Paul Hodges humorously says, "That's called parkour. It's a French martial art to get you around and over stuff."
  • An upcoming film called Freerunner starring Sean Faris, Danny Dyer, Tamer Hassan and featuring British freerunner Ryan Doyle is slated to be released sometime in 2011. The plot is about a young freerunner who must race against the clock with a ticking bomb locked around his neck. He has to evade enemies out his way freerunning thought the city to save himself and rescue his kidnapped girlfriend. The film will be directed by Lawrence Silverstein.

Television[editar]

Listed by year of release.

  • A commercial featuring traceur David Belle, was made for the BBC.
  • In the Heroes (2006 TV series) season two episode Chapter 10-Truth and Consequences (2007), Monica Dawson learns with her adoptive muscle memory ability how to do some free running stunts to break into a house. They used Team Tempest from Los Angeles to play the part.
  • On Saturday June 9, 2007, several freerunners appeared on Britain's Got Talent, and made it through to the next round with their free running display.
  • In a 2007 Modern Marvels episode, "Sticky Stuff", free running is shown while the show features "Stealth Rubber".
  • In September 2007, freerunning or parkour stunts were featured in the pilot episode of NBC's TV series Chuck performed by American freerunner Levi Meeuwenberg.
  • In 2007 an advert for The Friday Night Project featured two freerunners from urban freeflow acting as stunt doubles for the hosts.
  • Free runner Levi Meeuwenberg participated in the 2008 20th Ninja Warrior anniversary, becoming the last competitor standing until being eliminated by the cliff hanger in the third stage. He's also competed in the Sasuke 21st, 22nd, and 25th competition from 2008 to 2010.
  • In March 2009, "3Run", the parkour and freerunning team began a fitness challenge documented on the online fitness channel 'LA Muscle'.
  • The second season of the 2009 British comedy-drama Misfits features a mysterious, masked figure using free running and Parkour techniques to render aid to the main characters.
  • 2009-2010, MTV featured a TV mini-series called Ultimate Parkour Challenge, which consisted of pro free runners and parkour experts from all over the world, featuring Pip "Piptrix "Anderson, Danny Arroyo, King David, Ryan Doyle, Daniel Ilabaca, Ben "Jenx" Jenkin, Tim "Livewire" Shieff, Mike Turner, and Oleg Vorslav.
  • In 2010, Levi Meeuwenberg also had a guest starring role in the short-lived ABC TV series The Forgotten as "John Doe" in the episode "My John".
  • On February 14, 2011, G4 TV debuted their original TV series called Jump City: Seattle which featured America’s top parkour and freerunning teams taking their unique styles to the streets of Seattle, Washington. The four teams featured are: Team Tempest, The Tribe, Miami Freerunning, and Team Rogue.

Video Games[editar]

Listed by year of release.

  • In the Prince of Persia saga of the 1990s and 2000s, the prince uses many freerunning tricks.
  • Core Design released a free running game, under the same name in 2007, for the PSP.
  • Mirror's Edge (2008), a critically acclaimed Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, PC and iPod touch game with the main focus being on a gang of outlaws called "Runners," who excel and specialize in parkour.
  • Try-Synergy has developed a Wii game called "Free Running" in which you use freerunning techniques to complete goals.
  • The MMORPG, Urban Dead has "freerunning" as an acquired skill.
  • In the free to play MMO, FreeJack, featured freerunning as the main focus of the game and its races.
  • One of the special infected in Left4Dead, the hunter, appears to be the infected body of a former freerunner, and attacks in a manner similar to freerunning.
  • The 2009 videogame inFAMOUS for the PS3, the main character Cole MacGrath is a delivery messenger who uses freerunning to get around the environment.
  • True Crime, (2010) a cancelled sandbox game set in Hong Kong was to feature a blend of parkour and freerunning style movements mixed in with the game's combat, reminiscent of the Hong Kong action genre. (Character is seen in early gameplay videos of being able to lazy vault over objects and kick enemies or other objects while doing so).
  • The various main characters (Altair ibn La-Ahad and Ezio Auditore da Firenze, among others) in the Assassin's Creed franchise (2007-present) use freerunning and parkour to get around the environment.
  • The second trailer for the upcoming game Beyond Good & Evil 2 shows the main character evading police officers with techniques similar to freerunning.

Music videos[editar]

  • Bon Jovi has a teenager using elements of parkour and free running to get to a party in the video "It's My Life."
  • Eric Prydz has released a video for his song "Proper Education", which features freerunner Daniel Ilabaca from Team Dragon.
  • Madonna has released a video for her song "Jump", which features parkour and free running extensively throughout.[6]​ Also her music video "Hung Up" contains some clips of freerunning. For Madonna's Confessions tour, freerunning is heavily used for the choreography of the single "Jump". Freerunner Levi Meeuwenberg has stated on Jump City: Seattle that he started out as one of the freerunners on Madanna's tour.
  • 3 Doors Down has Gabriel Nunez, a freerunner from Team Tempest, preventing a car accident in the video "It's Not My Time."

Literature[editar]

  • In the second and third of John Twelve Hawks' books of the Fourth Realm Trilogy, The Dark River and The Golden City, free running and runners are featured as part of the story.
  • In the William Gibson novel Spook Country, one of the main characters, a young Cuban named Tito, practices free running. He also had elements of Systema and a reference to the Orisha that mixed with the free walking mindset.
  • In the Terry Pratchett Discworld novel Pyramids, the main character is a trainee assassin who enjoys "edificing", which is the local name for free running.

References[editar]

  1. Urban Freeflow Team. «Sebastian Foucan interview». Archivado desde el original el 8 de mayo de 2006. Consultado el 19 de junio de 2007. 
  2. a b c Sébastien Foucan (10 June 2006). «FREERUNNING». worldwidejam.tv. Consultado el 29 de julio de 2007. 
  3. «History: How It All Began | Freerunning TV». Freerunningtv.com. Consultado el 16 de septiembre de 2010.  (enlace roto disponible en Internet Archive; véase el historial, la primera versión y la última).
  4. {{ |url=http://www.parkour-online.com/parkour-and-freerunning.html River Ryan Dixon is a prime example of a world class free runner :) |date=12/03/08 |author=Drew Taylor |publisher=parkour-online.com |accessdate=2009-04-17 }}
  5. a b ez. «Sébastien Foucan interview». urbanfreeflow.com. Archivado desde el original el 13 de julio de 2007. Consultado el 29 de julio de 2007. 
  6. «Madonna's video for "Jump"». YouTube. Consultado el 16 de septiembre de 2010. 


Categoría:Parkour