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Plantilla:Infobox Upanishad

Varaha Upanishad (En sánscrito: वराह उपनिषत्, "jabalí") es un Upanishad menor del hinduismo compuesto entre los siglos XIII y XVI de la era común. Compuesto en sánscrito, está enlistado como uno de los 32 Upanishads de Krishna Yajurveda y clasificado como uno de los 20 Upanishads de Yoga.

El texto contiene cinco capítulos estructurado principalmente como una discusión entre Vishnu, en su avatar Varaha (jabalí), y el sabio Ribhu. La discusión cubre los temas de Tattvas, la naturaleza y relación entre el alma individual (Ser, Atman) y la Realidad Última (Brahman), las siete etapas del aprendizaje, las características de Jivanmukti (sentido interior de libertad mientras se vive) y los cuatro tipos de Jivanmuktas (personas liberadas). El último capítulo está dedicado al Yoga, sus metas y métodos.

Como Upanishad, es parte del corpus de la literatura Vedanta que presenta los conceptos filosóficos del hinduismo. El Varaha Upanishad enfatiza que para que un ser humano se libere de la tristeza y el miedo requiere conocer la naturaleza no dualista de la existencia, la unidad entre el Ser, Brahman y Vishnu, y el rol del Yoga en la auto liberación. Enlista además diez Yamas (virtudes) esenciales para la liberación del alama: no violencia, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, compasión, rectitud, kshama, no hipocresía, mithara y shaucha. Se describe también al Jivanmukta como aquel cuyo estado interior, entre otras cosas, no es afectado por la felicidad ni por el sufrimiento infligido, no se encoge del miedo al mundo ni el mundo se encoge de miedo por él y su sentido de calma y satisfacción interior está libre de ira, miedo y júbilo hacia los demás.

Etimología y antología[editar]

Varaha significa jabalí y se refiere a la encarnación de Vishnu como uno de estos animales en la mitología india.[1]​ El término Upanishad indica que es conocimiento o "doctrina secreta" perteneciente al corpus de la literatura Vedanta, presentando conceptos filosóficos del hinduismo y considerado el más alto propósito de los Vedas.[2]​ También es conocido como Varahopanishad.[3]

Está enlistado como el texto número 98 en la antología moderna que se compone de 108 Upanishads.[4]​ Escrito en sánscrito, es considerado uno de los 32 Upanishads bajo Krishan Yahurveda o Yajurveda Negro.[5]​ En su clasificación de Upanishad de Yoga,[6]​ se pone en duda el autor, la autenticidad y la fuente de su texto hindú; se trata también de un Upanishad tardío.[7]​No estuvo enlistado en la antología de Upanishads publicada en el siglo XVII por Dara Shikoh, en la del siglo XIX publicada por Henry Thomas Colebrooke ni en las compilaciones de Narayana.[8]

Cronología[editar]

El texto comienza reconociendo a Itihasa (Epopeyas, Ramayana y Mahabharata) y otros textos de la era posvédica, implicando entonces que fue compuesto en la era común.[9]​ Incorpora términos como Yogi Siddhi, lo que sugiere que, al igual que otros Upanishads de Yoga, fue compuesto después de los Sutras de Yoga de Patanjali y otros principales textos de Yoga.[9]​ Incorpora también secciones de terminología tántrica como Chakra y Nādi, en su discusión sobre Laya, Mantra y Hatha Yoga.[7]​ Según Antonio Rigopoulos, profesor de Indología en la Universidad Ca 'Foscari de Venecia, los Upanishads de Yoga menores fueron registrados en el periodo medieval de las tradiciones indias con raíces de Advaita y Yoga, posiblemente en la mitad del segundo milenio EC, aunque bien pueden representar ideas y prácticas ya establecidas antes del periodo épico y medieval, dado su uso de conceptos y terminología enraizados en textos de la era védica del primer milenio AEC, tales como pranava, Atman y Brahman.[9]

De acuerdo con Ananda, este texto fue compuesto posiblemente entre los siglos XIII y XVI.[10]

Contenido[editar]

Estructura[editar]

El sabio Ribhu, después de practicar Tapas por 12 largos años deva (años divinos), es visitado por Vishnu en su avatar Varaha; este último le pregunta a Ribhu qué bendición le gustaría recibir. Ribhu rechaza cualquier placer terrenal y le pide a Vishnu que le explique "la ciencia de Brahman,la cual trata de tu naturaleza, conocimiento que conduce a la salvación".[11]​ A partir de este punto, el Upanishad está estructurado como un sermón entre Varaha y el sabio Ribhu. Contiene cinco capítulos con un total de 247 versos.[12]

Tattvas[editar]

En el capítulo uno de este texto, Varaha le habla primero a Ribhu sobre la ciencia de Tattvas, que significa "principios".[11]​ Varaha es quien elabora tales Tattvas y diferentes maestros le atribuyen un número de 24, 36 incluso 96 Tattvas.[12]

En los Tattvas, afirma Varaha, están incluidos los cinco órganos sensoriales, cinco órganos de acción, cinco aires vitales esenciales para un cuerpo viviente (Prāna, Apāna, Udāna, Samāna y Vyāna), cinco principios rudimentarios de percepción y facultades de conocimiento: Manas (mente), que produce cierto conocimiento; Buddhi (inteligencia), el cual conduce a cierto conocimiento; Chitta (conciencia emocional), produce dudas y fluctuaciones en el conocimiento; y Ahankara (ego), el cual produce egoísmo. Estos 24 Tattvas establecen el texto.[11]

Algunos eruditos, afirma Varaha, expanden la lista de Tattvas del cuerpo humano a 36 al incluir los cinco elementos: tierra (Prithvi), aire (Vayu), agua (Ap), éter (Akasha) y fuego (Agni); los tres cuerpos: el grueso, el sutil y el causal (Karana); los tres estados de conciencia: despierto, soñando y durmiendo sin soñar; y un jiva (alma).[13]

Después, Varaha describe cómo la lista de Tattvas aumenta a 96 en los versos 1.8 y 1.14.[14][15]​ Incluye las seis etapas de cambios (Aiyar traduce esto a "existencia, nacimiento, crecimiento, transformación, decaimiento y destrucción"), seis males o "dolencias": hambre, sed, sufrimiento, ilusión, envejecimiento y muerte; koshas o seis envolturas: "piel, sangre, carne, grasa, médula y huesos"; seis adversidades o enemigos del cuerpo: "anhelo, ira, ansia, arrogancia y malicia"; tres aspectos de jiva: Vishva (mundo), Taijasa (dotado de luz) y Prajna (dentro de la naturaleza de la realidad); tres Gunas o cualidades: Sattva, Rajas y Tamas; tres tipos de Karmas: Prarabdha (karma pasado ahora siendo disfrutado), Sachita (karma pasado por disfrutar) y Agamin (karma presente que se disfrutará después); cinco acciones: hablar, levantar, caminar, excretar y disfrutar; y Tattvas de pensamiento, certeza, egoísmo, compasión, amabilidad, anticipación, simpatía e indiferencia. Para completar la lista de 96, Varaha añade a Dik o lo cuatro cuartos, a todas las deidades védicas que son parte del cuerpo humano, es decir: Vayu (aire, oreja), Sol (luz, ojo), Varuna (agua, lengua), Ashvini Devas (nariz), Agni (fuego), Indra, Upendra y Mrityu (muerte), a la luna, al Brahma de cuatro caras, a Rudra, Kshetrajna (el conocedor consciente del cuerpo) e Ishvara.[13][14]

Vishnu, como Varaha, afirma en los versos 1.15 al 1.17 que él es "el mismísimo agregado de estos 96 Tattvas" y que aquellos que lo veneren en su avatar Varaha y conozcan estos 96 Tattvas, removerán su Ajnana (ignorancia) y lograrán la salvación sin importar en qué orden de vida se encuentran, si tienen la cabeza rapada, llena de cabello o con sólo un mechón de éste.[13][14]

Brahmavidya[editar]

El Varaha, en los 83 versos del capítulo dos explica a Ribhu qué es y cómo lograr el más exaltado conocimiento de Brahmavidya.[16]​ Le dice que los cuatro medios de este conocimiento son practicar la conducta del Varna (casta) y Ashrama (etapas de la vida) de uno, la austeridad ascética y complacer a un Guru (maestro espiritual)

He tells Ribhu that the four means of this knowledge are to practice conduct of one's Varna (caste) and one's Ashrama (stage in life), from ascetic austerity and with the help of a Guru (spiritual teacher).[17]​ The Varaha then states that the path to Brahmavidya is through the capacity to distinguish between the ephemeral and the eternal, detachment from the material world unto the spiritual world. A sincere longing for spiritual liberation and six virtuous qualities (shama) are essential in order to achieve Brahmavidya, asserts the Upanishad, these being tranquility, self-restraint, doing work without craving for rewards, endurance, faith, and meditation.[17][18]​ Varaha states in verse 2.4 that the truly blessed are those who know Brahman and Atman and have thus become one with them.[17]

Ribhu then asks Varaha, "Taking birth as a human, that is also a male and a Brahmin is difficult, a yogi who has studied the Vedanta but who does not know the form of Vishnu, how can such an ignorant one become liberated?"[12][17]

Varaha replies in verses 2.7–2.9 that he alone is Supreme Bliss, that apart from the Atman (soul) there exists no Ishvara or phenomenal world.[19]​ Those who know their Atman (soul) have no notions of Varna (caste) or Ashrama (stage in life); they see Atman as Brahman, they become Brahman and reach "Moksha" salvation even without seeking.[19][20]​ That which is of the character of Truth, Knowledge, Bliss, and Fullness, states Varaha Upanishad in verse 2.16, stands farthest away from Tamas (darkness, destruction, chaos).[21]

Varaha states that what one aspires to is part of His own "light", which is all-encompassing. As Atman, self effulgent, Varaha states that "Brahma-Jnanis" are those who see nothing but the Brahman, and they are happy and content in the universe despite being subject to sufferings.[22]

अज्ञस्य दुःखौघमयं ज्ञस्यानन्दमयं जगत्
अन्धं भुवनमन्धस्य प्रकाशं तु सुचक्षुषाम्

To an ignorant man, the world is filled with misery; while, to a wise man, it is full of bliss,
To a blind man, the world is dark; while, to men of vision, it is bright.

Varaha Upanishad2.22[23]

The Varaha Upanishad asserts the non-dualistic premise that Brahman and Atman are one, and those who know this fear nothing, suffer nothing, and possess fortitude. He is I, states Vishnu.[24]​ "Become that, Ribhu; Thou am I verily", suggests Vishnu.[24]​ Those high souled ones, who with the firm conviction that "I am the Brahman", are the Jivanmukta, states verse 2.43 of the text.[25]

Sankalpa[editar]

According to the Upanishad, the entire universe evolves by Sankalpa (a thinking, ideation process), one becomes what one thinks, metaphysics affects physics, and it is ideation that helps retain the appearances of the world.[26]​ Following renunciation from this universe, which is also called a Sankalpa, the meditating mind is to be focused on the Nirvikalpa (the unchangeable) or the unchangeable part (metaphysical reality). Varaha in verse 2.64 compares the "samsara" (cycle of rebirth) to the domain of karma, states Billington, one that is like a long dream ("swapna"), a delusion, a sea of sorrow.[27]​ It defines jivanmukta as someone who has overcome and attained liberation from this samsara through self-knowledge.[28]

Meditation[editar]

Varaha explains that through obeisance to Him who is found in everything, and doing mediation for just 48 minutes (a muhurtha), will expand his wisdom to the state of "Pratyagatman", the state of Atman which is forever liberated. It means living close to Jivatma (soul) and Paramatman (the Supreme Soul).[12]

The Upanishad states that knowledge of Brahman results in knowing spiritual truth in the Paroksha (indirect cognition) way, but Sakshatkara (direct realization) results in knowing that his own soul is Brahman. And when a practitioner of Yoga becomes a Jivamukta (liberated soul), he knows that his Atman is the ultimate perfection. To an enlightened person who has realized Brahman, the two words "bondage" and "moksha" mean "mine" and "not mine". "Mine" is linked to a person, but "not mine" relates to one who is liberated from all thinking and knows Atman.[12]

Samadhi[editar]

In verses 2.75 through 2.87, the Varaha Upanishad defines the goal of Yoga and what is "Samadhi", as follows:

The Oneness of the Atman and the mind is attained through Yoga,
This Oneness is said to be what is Samadhi.

Varaha Upanishad2.75[29]

The state of Samadhi, it explains, is akin to salt dissolving in water, and the quality of oneness that results.[30]

Vishnu is Shiva[editar]

The Upanishad, in Chapter 3, continues the sermon of Vishnu to Ribhu, that "Ribhu should develop the conviction that he himself is palpable Existence and Consciousness, indivisible, without a counterpart, devoid of all visibility, non-ailing, flawless, the Shiva without a double".[31]​ The text reasserts its non-dualism in Chapter 3, adding that bhakti to Vishnu is the path to liberating knowledge of Brahman. In verse 3.14–3.15, states Ayyangar, everyone is equal in the eyes of god, there is no difference between living forms and human beings based on law, family, caste, or clan, and everyone is one Truth and Absolute Brahman.[32][33]​ The "Vishnu is Shiva" and "all is Shiva" theme repeats in verse 4.32, which declares, "The Guru is Shiva, the Veda is Shiva, the Deva is Shiva, the Lord is Shiva, I Varaha am Shiva, all is Shiva, other than Shiva there is naught".[34]

The Ultimate Truth, states the text, is that which always is, which preserves its nature over time, and which is unaffected by anything.[35]​ The Atman, the Brahman, the "Chit, Sat and Ananda", and Janardhana (Vishnu) is such Truth, and they are synonymous, one.[35]​ Some try to seek Sidhis, asserts the Upanishad, through mantras, religious rituals, time, skill, medicine, or wealth, but such Sidhis are fleeting and fruitless. Be an Atmajnani (one with Self-knowledge) through Yoga, says Vishnu to Ribhu, and to such a person Siddhis are of no importance.[35]

Seven stages of knowledge[editar]

The Varaha Upanishad, in Chapter 4, states that individuals gain knowledge through seven stages:[36]​ First, one must have virtuous desire to learn, discover (Subh-echchha). The second stage is inquiry, investigation (Vichārana). Discernment and thinning of mind toward other objects (Tanumanasi) is the third stage, states the text. The fourth stage is harmony, creative union with the subject of knowledge (Sattva-patti). Detachment from everything else (Asamsakti) is the fifth stage. Conceptual analysis and gaining complete, correct meaning of the topic (Pad-artha-bhavana) is the sixth stage. The seventh or last stage is Turiya, complete consciousness.[36][37]

The text states that AUM is a means for meditating on the nature of Atman and Brahman, wherein "A" represents Akara and Visva, "U" represents Ukara and Taijasa, M represents Makara and Prajna, the Ardhamatra that follows AUM, represents the Turiya.[36][37]

The characteristics of a Jivanmukta[editar]

The Varaha Upanishad, in a manner similar to many ancient and medieval era Hindu texts,[38]​ discusses moksha in this life (rather than afterlife), or Jivanmukti, calling those who have reached such a state a Jivanmukta (self-realized person).[39]​ The verses 4.21–4.30 describe the characteristics of a Jivanmukta; Ayyangar and Aiyar state as follows:[39][40]

  • He who is engrossed in the ways of the world, yet his mind is steady, like ether, is said to be Jivanmukta
  • He whose mental radiance neither rises nor sets, whose inner state is neither affected by happiness nor by misery inflicted on him, is said to be Jivanmukta
  • He who is wakeful while remaining asleep, he whose mental alertness is devoid of impressions, is known as Jivanmukta
  • He who responds to influences such as hatred, fear, love, yet his heart remains pure like Akasha (aether, space), is said to be Jivanmukta
  • He whose attitude is not be attached to anything, his intellect never clouded whether active or passive, is a Jivanmukta
  • He who does not shrink out of fear from the world, nor the world shrinks from him, who is free from anger, fear and joy, is a Jivanmukta
  • He whose mind is not agitated, though participating in the world, who rests in state of calmness and absolute consciousness, no matter what, is known as Jivanmukta

The concept and characteristics of Jivanmukta in Varaha Upanishad is similar, states Sprockhoff, but other Upanishads develop these ideas further and in greater depth.[41]

Yoga[editar]

The fifth chapter of Varaha Upanishad discusses meditation and Yoga.

Chapter 5 of the Varaha Upanishad is dedicated to Yoga, as a discussion between Ribhu and his student Nidagha.[42]​ There are three types of Yoga, states the text, and these are Laya (soft), Mantra (mystic), and Hatha (middle), recommending Hatha Yoga as foremost of three.[42]​ It discusses various aspects of Yoga, ranging from recommending that healthy food should be eaten in temperate quantities, in small portions, several times a day, to recommending that Yoga should not be performed when one is not feeling well or is very hungry.[42]​ The goal of Yoga, states Varaha, is manifold, including the gain of body strength and suppleness, acquisition of knowledge of one's own body and its auras, meditation, and Self (soul) knowledge.[43]

Axiology: Yamas and Niyamas[editar]

The axiology in the Varaha Upanishad is presented in Chapter 5 as ten Yamas and ten Niyamas.[7][44]​ This list is similar to the list found in other Yoga texts such as the Shandilya Upanishad,[45]​ as well as by Svātmārāma:[46][47][48]

  1. Ahiṃsā (अहिंसा): nonviolence
  2. Satya (सत्य): truthfulness
  3. Asteya (अस्तेय): not stealing
  4. Brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य): celibacy when single, not cheating on one's partner[44]
  5. Kṣamā (क्षमा): forgiveness[49]
  6. Dhṛti (धृति): fortitude
  7. Dayā (दया): compassion[49]
  8. Ārjava (आर्जव): non-hypocrisy, sincerity[50]
  9. Mitāhāra (मितहार): measured diet
  10. Śauca (शौच): purity, cleanliness

The Varaha Upanishad along with the Shandilya,[51]​ suggests ten niyamas in the sense of positive duties, desirable behaviors, and discipline. The Varaha's axiological list in Chapter 5 for observances include:[7][52]

  1. Tapas: persistence, perseverance in one's purpose, penance austerity[53][54]
  2. Santoṣa: contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances as they are, joy
  3. Āstika: faith in Real Self (jnana yoga, raja yoga), belief in God (bhakti yoga), conviction in Vedas/Upanishads (orthodox school)
  4. Dāna: generosity, charity, sharing with others[55]
  5. Īśvarapūjana: worship of the Ishvara (God/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality)[56]
  6. Siddhānta śrāvaṇa: listening to the ancient scriptures, texts about ethics, values, and principles
  7. Hrī: remorse and acceptance of one's past, modesty, humility[57]
  8. Mati: think and reflect to understand, reconcile conflicting ideas[58]
  9. Japa: mantra repetition, reciting prayers or knowledge[59]
  10. Vrata: keeping promises, fast rituals, observing pilgrimage and yajna

Yogasanas[editar]

Kukkutasana (Rooster pose) is mentioned in the text.[60]

The Upanishad makes mention of eleven asanas (Yogic postures), of which two pertain to physiological postures: the Peacock and the Rooster.[60]​ It describes squatting with folded legs known as Sukhasana, a meditative pose.[61]

Varaha gives a simile of an artist practicing dance to an orchestra, balancing a vessel on her head. She is focused only on the stability of the pot, in the same manner a practitioner of Yoga always contemplates on the Brahman. The yogic practice should be centered on the "spiritual sound" only.[12]​ Immersion and self-absorption in music is a form of yoga.[62]​ Varaha encourages introspection, and states that a person discerning his own mistakes will be free of attachments in life.[12]

Kundalini[editar]

Varaha emphatically states that Kundalini or corporeal energy is the ultimate power of truth.[63]​ It is further states that prana, the life force, exists in the Nadis (channels, pipes or tubes), which run in the body, emanating from the sole of the foot and running to the skull of the head.[64]​ The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Shakti. From the neck to the top of the head is said to be the seat of Shambu.[65]

References[editar]

  1. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, page 220 footnote 1
  2. Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1, 22, verse 13.4
  3. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad page 397, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  4. Ramamoorthy y Nome, 2000, p. 19.
  5. Prasoon, 2008, p. 82–83.
  6. Tinoco,, p. 89.
  7. a b c d Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, pages 435–437, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  8. Paul Deussen (Translator), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1469-1, pages 558–565
  9. a b c Antonio Rigopoulos, Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara, State University of New York Press, ISBN pages 58–63, for context see 57–87 with footnotes
  10. Ananda, 2014, p. 8.
  11. a b c KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, page 220 with footnotes
  12. a b c d e f g Aiyar, K. Narayanasvami. «Varaha Upanishad». celextel.org. 
  13. a b c KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, page 221 with footnotes
  14. a b c ॥ वराहोपनिषत् ॥ Sanskrit text of Varaha Upanishad, SanskritDocuments Archives (2009)
  15. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 1.7–15, pages 399–400, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  16. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.1–2.83, pages 401–417, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  17. a b c d Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.1–2.3, pages 401–402, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  18. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, page 222 with footnotes
  19. a b Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.7–2.16, pages 402–404, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  20. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, page 223, Quote: "That man who sees (his) Atman, which is all-witness and is beyond all caste and orders of life, as of the nature of Brahman, becomes himself Brahman".
  21. Sanskrit: सत्यज्ञानानन्दपूर्णलक्षणं तमसः परम् । ब्रह्मानन्दं सदा पश्यन्कथं बध्येत कर्मणा ॥२: १६॥ Source: ॥ वराहोपनिषत् ॥
    English Translation: Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.16–2.18, page 404, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  22. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, pages 229–232
  23. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.18–2.23, page 405, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri); for Sanskrit Source, see: ॥ वराहोपनिषत् ॥२: २२॥
  24. a b Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.18–2.38, pages 405–407, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  25. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.41–2.43, pages 408–409 Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  26. E Douglas Hume (1915). The Forum LIII. Forum Publishing Company. p. 465. 
  27. Billington, 2002, p. 38.
  28. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, pages 223–229
  29. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 2.75, page 405, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri);
    Sanskrit: सलिले सैन्धवं यद्वत्साम्यं भवति योगतः । तथात्ममनसोरैक्यं समाधिरिति कथ्यते ॥ ७५॥ Source, see: ॥ वराहोपनिषत् ॥२: ७५॥
  30. Gajendragadkar, 1959, p. 151.
  31. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 3.6–3.8, page 418, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri);
    Sanskrit: सत्यचिद्घनमखण्डमद्वयं सर्वदृश्यरहितं निरामयम् । यत्पदं विमलमद्वयं शिवं तत्सदाहमिति मौनमाश्रय ॥ ६॥ Source, see: ॥ वराहोपनिषत् ॥३: ६॥
  32. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 3.14–3.19, pages 420–421, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri)
  33. KN Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, Plantilla:Oclc, Chapter III, pages 229–230
  34. Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), The Yoga Upanishads, Varahopanishad Verses 4.32, page 430, Aidyar Library, (Editor: SS Sastri);
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Bibliography[editar]

External links[editar]

Plantilla:Hindudharma Plantilla:Mukhya Upanishads