Resolución de Naciones Unidas

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Saltar a: navegación, búsqueda

Una resolución de Naciones Unidas es una declaración formal adoptada por un organismo de la ONU. Cualquier organismo deliberativo puede emitir resoluciones. Sin embargo, en la práctica la mayoría de resoluciones las emite el Consejo de Seguridad o la Asamblea General. El carácter de estas disposiciones puede ser o no vinculante para los Estados miembros, en función de qué organismo la emita y bajo qué capítulo o artículo de la Carta se invoque.

Resoluciones de la Asamblea General[editar]

Algunas resoluciones de la Asamblea General, como las que afectan a cuestiones presupuestarias, asuntos internos o instrucciones a órganos de rango inferior, son indudablemente vinculantes. Sobre el valor jurídico de las demás resoluciones, sobre todo de las dictadas en virtud de los artículos 10 a 14 de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, ha habido históricamente una amplia polémica. Sin embargo, estos artículos se refieren a recomendaciones de la Asamblea General, por lo que las decisiones fundadas en aquellos no son vinculantes. No obstante, hay que tener en cuenta que todas las resoluciones de la ONU, incluso las no vinculantes, contribuyen a la creación de costumbre internacional (que es una fuente del Derecho) y de prácticas interpretativas de la Carta de la ONU.

Resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad[editar]

Según el artículo 25 de la Carta, los Estados miembros de la ONU convienen en aceptar y cumplir las decisiones del Consejo de Seguridad de acuerdo con esta Carta. Es discutido qué clase de resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad estarían cubiertas por esta disposición: si, en interpretación literal de la Carta, sólo las resoluciones adoptadas bajo el Capítulo VII de la Carta de la ONU (acción en caso de amenazas a la paz, quebrantamientos de la paz o actos de agresión) o si todas ellas. La Corte Internacional de Justicia, en una opinión consultiva no vinculante (pero que, como todas las resoluciones de la CIJ, es jurisprudencia internacional[1] ) acerca de Namibia, de 21 de junio de 1971, interpretó que, dado el compromiso asumido por los Estados miembros en virtud del artículo 25 y en base al artículo 24,2 de la Carta, que atribuye al Consejo de Seguridad poderes generales, éste puede adoptar decisiones obligatorias al margen del Capítulo VII (véanse párrafos 108 y ss. de la opinión, especialmente el 113).

Entre la doctrina científica, cuyas opiniones tienen nulo valor jurídico, no hay acuerdo unánime acerca de la obligatoriedad de las resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, si bien muchos expertos legales y diferentes personas y organismos, en interpretación literal de la Carta, consideran que sólo son vinculantes las que se adoptan bajo el Capítulo VII.[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Referencias[editar]

  1. Véase Manuel Díez de Velasco, Instituciones de Derecho Internacional Público, Tecnos, Madrid, 1988, vol. I, pág. 98: "Quedan aún por precisar algunas cuestiones respecto de la jurisprudencia. De ellas queremos hacer referencia, en primer lugar, a la existencia dentro de la emitida por la Corte Permanente de Justicia Internacional y la Corte Internacional de Justicia de dos claras categorías desde el punto de vista del Estatuto. Me refiero a la distinción entre sentencias y dictámenes de la Corte, cuyo valor vinculante es bien distinto. Ahora bien, la situación de hecho es también diferente, especialmente por el uso indistinto como precedentes que la Corte ha venido haciendo de sus sentencias y dictámenes. Ello ya fue señalado por De Visscher en su curso en la Academia de La Haya de 1929 (Visscher, Ch. «Les Avis Consultatifs de la CPJI», en Recueil des Cours de l'Académie de Droit International de La Haye, 1929, I, n. 26, p. 60) y ha sido desarrollado más tarde por Sörensen, avalándole con la doctrina de la propia Corte Permanente en los asuntos del Lotus y de la Alta Silesia y en el dictamen sobre la Comisión Europea del Danubio. Sörensen sienta la afirmación categórica de que para los efectos de uso de precedentes la Corte trata en pie de igualdad sentencias y dictámenes (Sörensen, M. Les sources du Droit International, Copenhague, 1946, p. 168), afirmación que nos parece en extremo convincente."
  2. "Additionally it may be noted that the Security Council cannot adopt binding decisions under Chapter VI of the Charter" (De Hoogh, Andre. Obligations Erga Omnes and International Crimes, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, p. 371).
  3. "Council recommendations under Chapter VI are generally accepted as not being legally binding". (Magliveras, Konstantinos D. Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Jan 1, 1999, p. 113).
  4. "Within the framework of Chapter VI the SC has at its disposal an 'escalation ladder' composed of several 'rungs' of wielding influence on the conflicting parties in order to move them toward a pacific solution... however, the pressure exerted by the Council in the context of this Chapter is restricted to non-binding recommendations". (Neuhold, Hanspeter. "The United Nations System for the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes", in Cede, Franz & Sucharipa-Behrmann, Lilly. The United Nations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Jan 1, 2001, p. 66).
  5. "The responsibility of the Council with regard to international peace and security is specified in Chapters VI and VII. Chapter VI, entitled 'Pacific Settlements of Disputes', provides for action by the Council in case of international disputes or situations which do not (yet) post a threat to international peace and security. Herein its powers generally confined to making recommendations, the Council can generally not issue binding decisions under Chapter VI". (Schweigman, David. The Authority of the Security Council Under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Jan 1, 2001, p. 33).
  6. "Under Chapter VI, the Security Council may only make recommendations but not binding decisions on United Nations members". (Wallace-Bruce, Nii Lante. The Settlement of International Disputes, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Jan 1, 1998, pp. 47-4 ).
  7. "The UN distinguishes between two sorts of Security Council resolution. Those passed under Chapter Six deal with the peaceful resolution of disputes and entitle the council to make non-binding recommendations. Those under Chapter Seven give the council broad powers to take action, including warlike action, to deal with “threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression”. Such resolutions, binding on all UN members, were rare during the cold war. But they were used against Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait. None of the resolutions relating to the Israeli-Arab conflict comes under Chapter Seven." Iraq, Israel and the United Nations: Double standards?, The Economist, October 10, 2002.
  8. "There are two sorts of security council resolution: those under 'chapter 6' are non-binding recommendations dealing with the peaceful resolution of disputes; those under 'chapter 7' give the council broad powers, including war, to deal with 'threats to the peace... or acts of aggression'." Emmott, Bill. If Saddam steps out of line we must go straight to war, The Guardian, November 25, 2002.
  9. "...there is a difference between the Security Council resolutions that Israel breaches (nonbinding recommendations under Chapter 6) and those Iraq broke (enforcement actions under Chapter 7)." Kristof, Nicholas D. Calling the Kettle Black, The New York Times, February 25, 2004.
  10. "There is a hierarchy of resolutions... Chapter 6, under which all resolutions relating to the middle east have been issued, relates to the pacific resolution of disputes. Above that, there are the mandatory chapter 7 resolutions, which impose the clearest possible obligations, usually on a single state rather than on two or three states, which is what chapter 6 is there for. Chapter 7 imposes mandatory obligations on states that are completely out of line with international law and policy, and the United Nations has decided in its charter that the failure to meet those obligations may be met by the use of force." Jack Straw. debates de la Cámara de los Comunes, Hansard, Column 32, September 24, 2002.
  11. "There is another characteristic of these resolutions which deserves a mention, and that is that they are under chapter 7 of the United Nations charter. Chapter 7 has as its heading 'Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression'. This is the very serious chapter of United Nations rules, regulations, laws and principles, which the United Nations activates when they intend to do something about it. If the United Nations announces under chapter 7 that it intends to do something about a matter and it is not done, that will undermine the authority of the United Nations; that will render it ineffective. There are many other resolutions under other chapters. Resolution 242 gets a bit of a guernsey here every now and then. Resolution 242 is under chapter 6, not chapter 7. It does not carry the same mandate and authority that chapter 7 carries. Chapter 6 is the United Nations trying to put up resolutions which might help the process of peace and it states matters of principle that are important for the world to take into consideration. Resolution 242 says that Israel should withdraw from territories that it has occupied. It also says that Israel should withdraw to secure and recognised boundaries and that the one is dependent upon the other. Resolution 242 says that, but it is not a chapter 7 resolution." Beazley, Kim, Waiting for blow-back (speech delivered in Parliament on February 4, 2003, The Sydney Morning Herald, February 5, 2003.
  12. "There are several types of resolutions: Chapter 6 resolutions are decisions pursing the Pacific Settlement of Disputes, and put forward Council proposals on negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies, and other peaceful means. Chapter 7 resolutions are decisions for Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, involving use of force and sanctions, complete or partial interruption of economic relations, rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic radio and other means of communication and the severance of diplomatic relations. Resolutions passed under Chapter 7 of the Charter are binding on all UN members, who are required to give every assistance to any action taken by the Council, and refrain from giving any assistance to the country against which it is taking enforcement action." Iran dossier crosses the Atlantic: Where to from here? (Microsoft Word document), Greenpeace position paper on Iran.

Véase también[editar]

Enlaces externos[editar]