Cronología de la ingeniería eléctrica y electrónica

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Las siguientes tablas cronológicas enumeran los descubrimientos e invenciones en la historia de la ingeniería eléctrica y de la ingeniería electrónica. [1][2]


Cronología de los descubrimientos[editar]

Año Evento
600 B.C. Tales de Mileto descubrió la electricidad estática frotando la piel sobre sustancias como el ámbar.
1600 William Gilbert, científico inglés, asimila la Tierra a un gran imán, explicando los polos Norte y Sur. Al estudiar las brújulas, compara las atracciones del imán y del ámbar: para describir el mismo efecto atractivo que el componente "magnético" del imán, inventa para el ámbar la palabra electricus.
1646 En Inglaterra, el término "electricidad" se usa en la trilogía «gravedad, magnetismo, electricidad» de los cuales Isaac Newton es matemático-filósofo.
1660 Otto von Guericke crea una producción de electricidad experimental con una bola de azufre frotada por rotación: encuentra chispas que compara con los relámpagos. Probablemente se vio una luz (electroluminiscencia) desde esta máquina.
1669 Hennig Brandt descubre el fósforo, con la luz que proviene de él.[3]
1676 Ole Christensen Rømer evalúa la velocidad de la luz en el Observatorio de París.
1676-1689 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, matemático-filósofo, propone una teoría vectorial de la fuerza viva, la «conservación de la energía de movimiento relativa de los objetos» con respecto al tiempo en sus sistemas autónomos. Está en oposición al mecanismo teórico de Newton y Descartes que resulta de la «plenitud» de la «cosa extendida» que conecta toda cosa, las perceptibles como las inmateriales.
1705 Francis Hauksbee, científico inglés, hace una bola de cristal que brillaba cuando se giraba y se frotaba con la mano.
1720 Stephen Gray, científico inglés, hace la distinción entre aisladores y conductores.
1733 El intendente Du Fay, en Francia, al examinar la atracción y repulsión de cuerpos electrificados por fricción, distingue una electricidad positiva y una electricidad negativa. Las dos (electricidad resinosa proveniente del ámbar y el azufre, electricidad vítrea).
1745 Ewald Georg von Kleist, físico alemán, y Pieter van Musschenbroek, científico holandés, inventan las botellas de Leyden.
1746 docteur Maimbray en Escocia estudió el efecto de la electricidad en dosplantas, como antecedentes del «electrocultivo». En este período se establecen las suposiciones de la existencia de la electricidad en el cuerpo vivo hechas como resultado del uso de la máquina electrostática.
1747 Jean le Rond D'Alembert estableció la ecuación de Alembert de propagación de ondas. (Es análoga a las cuatro ecuaciones de Maxwell del siglo XIX).
1752 Benjamin Franklin, científico estadounidense, tiene la visión teórica de que el relámpago es un fenómeno debido a la electricidad y, según la historia oficial, inventa el pararrayos: fue instalado en Francia por primera vez por de Buffon y Dalibard También explica cómo funcionan las botellas de Leyden.
1759 Franz Aepinus publicó, en latín, pero a partir de la visión de Franklin de las cosas y su comunicación con el matemático Euler, una teorización del razonamiento relativo a la física con electricidad, magnetismo y calor.
1770 Un experimento de Luigi Galvani, en Italia, con patas de rana en contacto con diferentes metales, resaltar el fenómeno de la nueva naturaleza: la contracción de los músculos de un animal. Para él, «la electricidad animal es una electricidad de una naturaleza diferente a la de la electricidad eléctrica». No está en movimiento y se situa en el cuerpo: escribió en 1786 "DE ANIMALI ELECTRICITATE"
1773 le chimiste Henry Cavendish en Angleterre a fabriqué une "maquette" de poisson-torpille avec des bouteilles de Leyde (connues depuis 1745) imbriquées enterrées. Et une "électricité" de même nature que la foudre Plantilla:Incise y a été constatée avec les mêmes effets contractants (environ 2500 V) que l'électricité animale du poisson-torpille (environ 250 V.
En Italie, Luigi Galvani qui est un tenant de l'« ordre divin » où « Dieu donne vie » est opposé philosophiquement à Alessandro Volta, ils appartiennent à deux Universités concurrentes . Vers 1800, Volta, afín de démontrer et confirmer son point de vue sur les phénomènes électriques, part des observations antérieures du poisson-torpille, simule les nombreux petits muscles interstitiels par des cartons imbibés entre des plaques et surtout les empile en série. Il met au point le premier objet qui fournisse de l' « électricité » sans transformation d'un mouvement mécanique et de façon continue : la pile voltaïque ancêtre de la pile électrique.  Le « fluide électrique » ayant des « goûts différents sur la langue» selon leur inventeur (électricité générée par la transformation chimique de métaux avec la salive).

Le courant continu "artificiel" de basse tension est ainsi une conséquence de la tenue des expériences sur le vivant animal démonstratrices des philosophies différentes{ . Elle montre que la recherche initiale de la connaissance physique est intuitive et associée à la perception par les sens humains. En Italia, Luigi Galvani, partidario del "orden divino", donde "Dios da vida" se opone filosóficamente a Alessandro Volta, pertenecen a dos Universidades en competencia: 1. Alrededor de 1800, Volta, para demostrar y confirmar su punto de vista. Una vista de los fenómenos eléctricos, basada en observaciones previas del pez torpedo, simula los numerosos pequeños músculos intersticiales por cartones impregnados entre placas y especialmente los apila en la serie L15 1. Desarrolla el primer objeto que proporciona "electricidad". Sin la transformación de un movimiento mecánico y de forma continua: el antecesor de la batería voltaica de la batería eléctrica V 1. El "fluido eléctrico" tiene "diferentes gustos en la lengua" según su inventor (electricidad generada por la transformación química de metales con la saliva).

La corriente directa "artificial" de bajo voltaje es, por lo tanto, una consecuencia de la realización de experimentos en demostradores de animales vivos de diferentes filosofías V 1. Muestra que la investigación inicial del conocimiento físico es intuitiva y está asociada con la percepción de los sentidos humanos.

1780 Luigi Galvani, científico italiano, descubrió la acción galvánica en el tejido vivo.
1785 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, físico francés, formula y publica la ley de Coulomb en su artículo Premier Mémoire sur l’Électricité et le Magnétisme.
1785 Pierre-Simon Laplace, matemático francés, desarrolla la transformada de Laplace para transformar una ecuación diferencial lineal en una ecuación algebraica. Más tarde, su transformación se convirtió en una herramienta en el análisis de circuitos.
1800 Alessandro Volta, físico italiano, inventa la batería.
1808 Teoría atómica de John Dalton
1816 Francis Ronalds, inventor inglés, construyó el primer telégrafo eléctrico funcional.
1820 Hans Christian Ørsted, físico danés, descubre accidentalmente que un campo eléctrico crea un campo magnético.
1820 André-Marie Ampère, físico francés, una semana después del descubrimiento de Ørsted, publica su ley. También propone la regla de tornillo de mano derecha.
1821 Thomas Johann Seebeck, científico alemán, descubre la termoelectricidad.
1825 William Sturgeon, físico inglés, desarrolla el primer electroimán.
1827 Georg Ohm, físico alemán introduce el concepto de resistencia eléctrica
1831 Michael Faraday, físico inglés, publica la ley de la inducción (Joseph Henry desarrolla la misma ley de forma independiente)
1831 Joseph Henry, científico estadounidense, desarrolló en Estados Unidos un prototipo de motor DC
1832 Hippolyte Pixii, fabricante de instrumentos francés, desarrolla en Francia un prototipo de generador DC
1833 Michael Faraday desarrolla las leyes de la electrólisis.
1833 Michael Faraday inventa el termistor.
1833 Samuel Hunter Christie, inglés, inventa el puente de Wheatstone (lleva el nombre de Charles Wheatstone que lo popularizó).
1836 Nicholas Callan, sacerdote irlandés (y más tarde científico) inventa el transformador en Irlanda.
1837 Edward Davy, científico inglés, inventa el relé eléctrico.
1839 Edmond Becquerel, científico francés, descubre el efecto fotovoltaico.
1844 Samuel Morse, inventor estadounidense, desarrolla la telegrafía y el código Morse.
1845 Gustav Kirchhoff, físico alemán, desarrollados leyes ahora conocidas como leyes de circuito de Kirchhoff
1850 Belgian engineer Floris Nollet, ingeniero belga, inventa (y patenta) un práctico generador de CA.
1851 Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff primera bobina, que patenta en 1851
1855 Primera utilización de AC (en electroterapia) por Guillaume Duchenne, neurólogo francés.
1856 Charles Bourseul, ingeniero belga propone la telefonía
1856 Primera casa con luz alimentada eléctricamente en Inglaterra.
1860 Johann Philipp Reis, científico alemán, inventa el micrófono
1862 James Clerk Maxwell, físico escocés, publica cuatro ecuaciones con su nombre.
1866 Cable telegráfico transatlántico
1873 Zenobe Gramme, ingeniero belga, que ya había desarrollado un generador de CC, descubrió accidentalmente que un generador de CC también funciona como un motor de CC durante una exhibición en Viena.
1876 Pavel Yablochkov, ingeniero ruso, inventa la lámpara de arco de carbono eléctrica
1876 Alexander Graham Bell, inventor escocés, patenta el teléfono.
1877 Primer alumbrado público en París, Francia.
1877 Thomas Alva Edison, inventor estadounidense, inventa el fonógrafo.
1877 Werner von Siemens, industrial alemán, desarrolla un primitivo altavoz.
1878 Primera planta hidroeléctrica en Cragside, Inglaterra.
1878 William Crookes inventa el tubo de Crookes un prototipo de los tubos de vacío.
1878 Joseph Swan, ingeniero inglés, inventa la bombilla incandescente.
1879 Edwin Herbert Hall, físico estadounidense, descubre el efecto Hall
1879 Thomas Alva Edison introduced un filamento de larga duración para la lámpara incandescente.
1880 Pierre Curie y Jacques Curie, físicos franceses, descubren la piezoelectricidad
1882 Primeras centrales térmicas en Londres y Nueva York.
1883 J. J. Thomson, físico inglés, inventa las guías de onda.
1887 Emile Berliner, inventor germano-americano, inventa la grabación con gramófono.
1888 Heinrich Hertz, físico alemán, demuestra la existencia de ondas electromagnéticas, incluyendo lo que se llamaría ondas de radio.
1888 Galileo Ferraris, físico e ingeniero eléctrico italiano, publica un artículo sobre el motor de inducción y [Nikola Tesla]], ingeniero serbio-estadounidense, obtiene una patente de EE. UU. sobre el mismo dispositivo.[4][5]
1890 Thomas Alva Edison inventa el fusible.
1893 Durante la Cuarta Conferencia Internacional de Electricistas en Chicago se definieron unidades eléctricas.
1894 Alexander Stepanovich Popov, físico ruso, encuentra un uso para las ondas de radio y construye un receptor de radio que puede detectar rayos.
1895 Wilhelm Röntgen descubre los rayos X.
1896 Primer telegrama intercontinental exitoso.
1897 Karl Ferdinand Braun, inventor alemán, inventa el osciloscopio de rayos catódicos (CRO)
1900 Guglielmo Marconi, inventor italiano, construye el primer sistema de comunicación de radio basado en la radiotelegrafía
1901 Primera transmisión de radio transatlántica de Guglielmo Marconi.
1901 Peter Cooper Hewitt, ingeniero estadounidense, inventa la lámpara fluorescente.
1904 John Ambrose Fleming, ingeniero inglés, inventa el diodo
1906 Lee de Forest, inventor estadounidense, inventa el triodo
1908 Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton, ingeniero escocés, establece los principios de la televisión.
1911 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, físico neerlandés, descubre la superconductividad
1912 Edwin Howard Armstrong, ingeniero estadounidense, desarrolla un oscilador electrónico
1915 French physicist Paul Langevin, físico francés, y Constantin Chilowsky, ingeniero ruso, inventan el sonar
1917 Alexander M. Nicholson, ingeniero estadounidense, inventa el oscilador de cristal
1918 Henri Abraham, físico francés, y Eugene Bloch inventan el multivibrador
1919 Edwin Howard Armstrong desarrolla un receptor de radio AM.
1921 La convención del metro se amplia para incluir las unidades eléctricas.
1921 Edith Clarke inventa la «calculadora Clarke», una calculadora gráfica para resolver ecuaciones de línea con funciones hiperbólicas, que permite a los ingenieros eléctricos simplificar los cálculos de inductancia y capacidad en líneas de transmisión de potencia.[6]
1925 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, ingeniero austriaco estadounidense, patenta la primera FET (que se hizo popular mucho más tarde).
1926 Hidetsugu Yagi y Shintaro Uda, ingenieros japoneses , desarrollan la antena Yagi-Uda.
1927 Harold Stephen Black, ingeniero estadounidense, inventa el amplificador de retroalimentación negativa.
1927 Max Dieckmann, físico alemán, inventa el tubo de la cámara de video.
1928 Primera emisión de televisión experimental en Estados Unidos.
1929 Primera emisión pública de televisión en Alemania.
1931 Primera planta de energía eólica en la Unión Soviética.
1936 Dudley E. Foster y Stuart William Seeley desarrollan un circuito detector de FM.
1936 Paul Eisler, ingeniero austriaco, inventa la placa de circuito impreso.
1936 Robert Watson-Watt, científico escocés, desarrolla el concepto de radar que se había propuesto anteriormente.
1938 Vladimir K. Zworykin, ingeniero ruso-estadounidense, desarrolla el iconoscopio.
1939 Edwin Howard Armstrong desarrolla un receptor de radio FM.
1939 Russell y Sigurd Varian desarrollan el primer tubo Klystron en los Estados Unidos.
1941 Konrad Zuse, ingeniero alemán, desarrolla la primera computadora programable en Berlín.
1944 John Logie Baird, ingeniero escocés, desarrolla el primer tubo de imagen en color.
1945 Cable telefónico transatlántico.
1947 John Bardeen y Walter Houser Brattain, ingenieros estadounidenses, junto con el líder de su grupo William Shockley inventan el transistor.
1948 HDennis Gabor, físico húngaro-británico, inventa la holografía.
1950 Alfred Kastler, físico francés, inventa el máser.
1951 Primera planta de energía nuclear en los Estados Unidos.
1953 Primera computadora totalmente transistorizada en los Estados Unidos.
1958 Jack Kilby, ingeniero estadounidense, inventa el circuito integrado (IC,integrated circuit)
1960 Theodore Harold Maiman, ingeniero estadounidense, inventa el LASER
1962 Nick Holonyak Jr. inventa el LED
1963 Primera grabadora de videocasetes doméstica (VCR)
1963 Calculadora electrónica
2008 Richard Stanley Williams, científico estadounidense, inventa el memristor que había sidopropuesto por Leon O. Chua en 1971.

Cronología de las invenciones asociadas[editar]

Brief History of Electronics Timeline
Date Invention/Discovery Inventor(s)
1900 Teoria cuántica antigua Planck
1905 Teoría de la relatividad Einstein
1918 Transmutación atómica Rutherford
1932 Neutrón Chadwick
1932 Acelerador de partículas Crockcroft and Walton
1935 Microscópio electrónico de escaneado Knoll
1937 Xerografía Carlson
1937 Oscilógrafo Van Ardenne, Dowling, and Bullen
1950 Modem MIT and Bell Labs
1950 Técnica de mapeo de Karnaugh (lógica digital) Karnaugh
1952 Voltímetro digital Kay
1954 Bateria solar Chapin, Fuller y Pearson
1956 Cable telefónico transatlántico UK y U.S.
1957 Satélite Sputnik 1 Soviet Union
1957 Misil nuclear Kurchatov / Soviet Union
1957 Lenguaje de programación FORTRAN Watson Scientific
1959 Primera fotocopiadora de papel normal de una pieza (Xerox 914) Xerox
1959 Veroboard (Stripboard) Terry Fitzpatrick
1961 Reloj electrónico Vogel and Cie, patentado por Alexander Bain, relojero escocés en 1840.
1963 Primer casete de audio compacto comercialmente exitoso audio compact cassette Philips Corporation
1964 Lenguaje de programacion BASIC Kemeny and Kurtz
1964 Pantalla de cristal líquido George H. Heilmeier
1966 Comunicaciones de fibra óptica Kao and Hockham
finales década 1960 Primera máquina de fax digital Dacom
1969 Sistema operativo UNIX AT&T's Bell Labs
1970 Primer microprocesador (4004, 60.000 oper/s) Intel
1970 Primera memoria DRAM disponible comercialmente IBM
1971 EPROM N/A
1971 Lenguaje de programación PASCAL Wirth
1971 Primer microordenador en un chip Intel
1971 [[Impresora laser] Xerox
1972 Procesador 8008 (200 kHz, 16 kB) Intel
1972 Primer procesador de textos programable Automatic Electronic Systems
1972 Disquete de 5¼ pulgadas N/A
1972 Primer cajero automático moderno (IBM 2984) IBM
1973 Unión Josephson IBM
1973 Láser de onda continua sintonizable Bell Labs
1973 Ethernet Metcalfe
1973 Teléfono móvil John F. Mitchell y Martin Cooper de Motorola
1974 C (lenguaje de programación) Kernighan, Ritchie
1974 Calculadora de bolsillo programable Hewlett-Packard
1975 BASIC para ordenadores personales Allen
1975 Primera computadora personal (Altair 8800) Roberts
1975 Cámara digital Steven Sasson de Eastman Kodak
1975 [[Circuito optico integrado|Circuitos opticos integrados]s Reinhart y Logan
1975 Sistema de reconocimiento óptico de caracteres Omni-font Nuance Communications
1975 Escáner plano CCD Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 TSíntesis de texto a voz Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 Primera máquina de lectura comercial para ciegos (Kurzweil Reading Machine) Kurzweil Computer Products
1976 Computadora Apple I Wozniak, Jobs
1977 Lanzamiento de las "computadoras trinity 1977 " que expanden la informática doméstica, el Apple II, Commodore PET y el TRS-80 Launch of the " 1977 trinity computers" expanding home computing, Apple, Tandy Corporation, Commodore Business Machines
1977 Primer juego electrónico de mano handheld electronic game (Auto Race) Mattel
1978 WordPerfect 1.0 Satellite Software
1980 Disquete de 3½ pulgadas (2 caras, 875 kB) N/A
1980 VIC-20 Commodore Business Machines
1981 IBM Personal Computer (8088 processor) IBM
1981 MS-DOS 1.0 Microsoft
1981 Célula solar "húmeda" Bayer AG
1982 Commodore 64 Commodore Business Machines
1982 Primer reconocimiento de voz de gran vocabulario lanzado comercialmente Kurzweil Applied Intelligence and Dragon Systems
1983 Televisión via satélite U.S. Satellite Communications, Inc.
1983 Primer disco duro incorporado hard drive (IBM PC XT) IBM
1983 C++ (lenguaje de programación) Stroostrup
1984 Lanzamiento ordenador Macintosh Apple Computer
1984 Reproductor de CD-ROM para ordenadores personales Philips
1984 Primer sintetizador de música (Kurzweil K250) capaz de recrear el piano de cola y otros instrumentos orquestales Kurzweil Music Systems
1984 Ordenador Amiga (lanzamiento) Commodore
1985 300,000 conversaciones telefónicas simultáneas sobre una única fibra óptica AT&T, Bell Labs
1987 Superconductividad más cálida Karl Alex Mueller
1987 Microprocesador 80386 (25 MHz) Intel
1989 Primer receptor GPS de mano comercia GPS receiver (Magellan NAV 1000) Magellan Navigation Inc.
1989 Transistores de silicio-germanio IBM fellow Bernie Meyerson
1990 Microprocesador 486 (33 MHz) Intel
1993 Dispositivo de control de clima / HAARP U.S.
1994 Procesador Pentium, basado en P5 (60/90 MHz, 166.2 MIPS) Intel
1994 Bluetooth Ericsson
1994 Primer reproductor de DVD jamás hecho Tatung Company
1996 Procesador Alpha 21164 (550 MHz) Digital Equipment
1996 Procesador P2SC (15 millones de transistores) IBM

Consumer Electronics[editar]

Plantilla:Expand German

1843-1923: From electromechanics to electronics[editar]

Cinématographe camera by the Lumière brothers in 1895 (ref 86.5822) at the French Museum of Photography in Bièvres, Essonne, France
  • 1895: Auguste Lumiere's cinematograph displays moving images for the first time. In the same year, brothers Emil and Max Skladanowsky present their "Bioscop" in Berlin.
  • 1897
    • Ferdinand Braun invents the "inertialess cathode ray oscillograph tube", a principle which remained unchanged in television picture tubes.
    • The Italian Guglielmo Marconi transmits wireless telegraph messages by electromagnetic waves over a distance of five kilometers.
  • 1898
  • 1899: The dog "Nipper" is used in "His Master's Voice", the trademark for gramophones and records.
  • 1902
    • Otto von Bronk patented his "Method and apparatus for remote visualization of images and objects with temporary resolution of the images in parallel rows of dots". This patent, originally developed for phototelegraphy, impacted the development of color television, particularly the NTSC implementation.
    • For the first time audio records are printed with paper labels in the middle.
  • 1903: Guglielmo Marconi provides evidence that wireless telegraphic communication is possible over long distances, such as across the Atlantic. He used a transmitter developed by Ferdinand Braun.
  • 1904
    • For the first time, double-sided records, and those with a diameter of 30 cm are produced, increasing playing time up to 11 minutes (5.5 minutes per side). These are created by Odeon in Berlin and debuted at the Leipzig Spring Fair.
    • The German physicist Arthur Korn developed the first practical method for telegraphy.
  • 1905: The Englishman Sir John Ambrose Fleming invents the first electron tube.
  • 1906
  • 1907: Rosenthal puts in his image telegraph for the first time a photocell.
  • 1911: First film studios are created in Hollywood and Potsdam- Babelsberg .
  • 1912: The first radio receiver is created, in accordance with the Audion principle.
  • 1913: The legal battle over the invention of the electron tube between Robert von Lieben and Lee de Forest is decided. The electron tube is replaced by a high vacuum in the glass flask with significantly improved properties.
    • Alexander Meissner patented his process "feedback for generating oscillations", by his development of a radio station using an electron tube .
    • The Englishman Arthur Berry submits a patent on the manufacture of printed circuits by etched metal.
  • 1915: Carl Benedicks leads basic studies in Sweden on the electrical properties of silicon and germanium. Due to the emerging tube technology, however, interest in semiconductors remains low until after the Second World War.
  • 1917
    • Based on previous findings of the Englishman Oliver Lodge, the Frenchman Lucien Levy develops a radio receiver with frequency tuning using a resonant circuit.
  • 1919: Charlie Chaplin founded the Hollywood film production and distribution company United Artists
  • 1920: The first regularly operating radio station KDKA goes on air on 2 November 1920 in Philadelphia, USA. It is the first time electronics are used to transmit information and entertainment to the public at large. The same year in Germany an instrumental concert was broadcast on the radio from a long-wave transmitter in Wusterhausen.
  • 1922: J. McWilliams Stone invents the first portable radio receiver. George Frost builds the first "car radio" in his Ford Model T.
  • 1923
    • The 15-year-old Manfred von Ardenne is granted his first patent for an electron tube having a plurality of electrodes. Siegmund Loewe (1885-1962) builds with the tube his first radio receiver "Loewe Opta-".
    • The Hungarian engineer Dénes Mihály patented an image scanning with line deflection, in which each point of an image is scanned ten times per second by a selenium cell.
    • August Karolus (1893-1972) invents the Kerr cell, an almost inertia-free conversion of electrical pulses into light signals. He was granted a patent for his method of transmitting slides.
    • Vladimir Kosma developed the first television camera tube, the Ikonoskop, using the Braun tube.
    • The German State Secretary Karl August Bredow founded the first German broadcasting organization. By lifting the ban on broadcast reception and the opening of the first private radio station, the development of radio as a mass medium begins.

1924-1959: From cathode ray tube to stereo audio and TV[editar]

  • 1924: the first radio receivers are exhibited at the Berlin Radio Show
  • 1925
    • Brunswick Records in Dubuque, Iowa produced their first record player, the Brunswick Panatrope with a pickup, amplifier and loudspeaker
    • In the American Bell Laboratories, a method for recording of records obtained by microphone and tube amps for series production. Also in Germany working on it is ongoing since 1922. 1925 appear the first electrically recorded disks in both countries.
    • At the Leipzig Spring Fair, the first miniature camera "Leica" is presented to the public.
    • John Logie Baird performs the first screening of a living head with a resolution of 30 vertical lines using a Nipkow disk.
    • August Karolus demonstrated in Germany television with 48 lines and ten image changes per second.
  • 1926
    • Edison developed the first "LP". By dense grooves (16 grooves on 1 mm) and the reduction of speed to 80 min -1 (later 78 min -1 ) increases the playing time up to 2 times 20 minutes. He carries himself with the decline of his phonograph business.
    • The German State Railroad offers a cordless telephone service in moving trains between Berlin and Hamburg - the idea of mobile telephony is born.
    • John Logie Baird developed the first commercial television set in the world. It was not until 1930, he is called a " telescreen sold "at a price of 20 pounds.
  • 1927
    • The first fully electronic music boxes ("Jukeboxes") used in the USA on the market.
    • German Grammophon on sale due to a license agreement with the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company. Its first fully electronic turntables.
    • The first industrially manufactured car radio, the "Philco Transitone" from the "Storage Battery Co." in Philadelphia, USA, comes on the market.
    • The first shortwave radio - Rundfunkübertragung overseas broadcast by the station PCJJ the Philips factories in Eindhoven in the Dutch colonies.
    • Opening of the first regular telegraphy -Dienstes between Berlin and Vienna.
    • First commercial sound films ("The Jazz Singer", USA) using the "Needle sound" back in sync with the film screening for LPs over loudspeakers.
    • First public television broadcasts in the UK by John Logie Baird between London and Glasgow and in the USA by Frederic Eugene Ives (1882-1953) between Washington and New York.
    • The American inventor Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906-1971) developed in Los Angeles, the first fully electronic television system in the world.
    • John Logie Baird developed his Phonovision, the first videodisc player. 30-line television images are stored on shellac records. At 78 RPM mechanically scanned, the images can be played back on his "telescreen". It could not play sound nor keep up with the rapidly increasing resolution of television. More than 40 years later, commercial optical disc players came onto the market.
  • 1928: Fritz Pfleumer got the first tape recorder patent. It replaces steel wire with paper coated in iron powder. According to Valdemar Poulsen (1898) to the second crucial pioneer of magnetic sound, image and data storage
    • Dénes Mihály presented in Berlin a small circle, the first authentic television broadcast in Germany, having worked at least since 1923 in this field.
    • August Karolus and the company Telefunken put on the "fifth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1928" the prototype of a television receiver, with an image size of 8 cm × 10 cm and a resolution of about 10,000 pixels, a much better picture quality than previous devices.
    • In New York (USA) the first regular television broadcasts of the experiment station WGY, operated by the General Electric Company (GE). Sporadic television news and dramas radiate from these stations by 1928.
      • The first commercially produced television receiver of the Daven Corporation in Newark is offered for $75.
    • John Logie Baird transmits the first television pictures internationally, and the same across the Atlantic from London to New York. He also demonstrated the world's first color television transmission in London.
  • 1929
    • Edison withdraws from the phono business - the disk has ousted the cylinder.
    • The company Columbia Records developed the first portable record player that can be connected to any tube radio. It also created the first radio / phonograph combinations, the precursor to the 1960s music chests.
Daylygraph wire recorder
    • The German physicist Curt Stille (1873-1957) records magnetic sound for film, on a perforated steel band. First, this "Magnettonverfahren" has no success. Years later it is rediscovered for amateur films, providing easy dubbing. A "Daylygraph" or Magnettongerät had amplifier and equalizer, and a mature Magnettondiktiergerät called "Textophon".
    • Based on patents, which he had purchased of silence, brings the Englishman E. Blattner the " Blattnerphone "the first magnetic sound recording on the market. It records on a thin steel band.
    • The first sound film using optical sound premiers. Since the early 1920s, various people have developed this method. The same optoelectronic method also allows for the first time the post-processing of recorded music to sound recordings of it.
    • The director Carl Froelich (1875-1953) turns "The Night Belongs to Us", the first German sound film.
    • 20th Century Fox presents in New York on an 8 m × 4 m big screen the first widescreen movie.
    • The radio station Witzleben begins in Germany with the regular broadcasting of television test broadcasts, initially on long wave with 30 lines (= 1,200 pixels) at 12.5 image changes per second. It appear first blueprints for television receiver.
    • John Logie Baird starts in the UK on behalf of the BBC with regular experimental television broadcasts to the public.
    • Frederic Eugene Ives transmits a color television from New York to Washington.
  • 1930
  • 1931
    • The British engineer and inventor Alan Dower Blumlein (1903-1942) invents "Binaural Sound", today called "Stereo". He developed the stereo record and the first three-way speaker. He makes experimental films with stereo sound. Then he becomes leader of the development team for the EMI -405-line television system.
    • The company RCA Victor presents to the public the first real LP record, the 35 cm diameter and 33.33 RPM give sufficient playing time for an entire orchestral work. But the new turntables are initially so expensive that they are only gain broad acceptance after the Second World War - then as vinyl record.
    • The French physicist René Barthélemy leads in Paris the first public television with clay before. The BBC launches first Tonversuche in the UK.
    • Public World Premiere of electronic television - without electro-mechanical components such as the Nipkow disk - on the "eighth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1931 ". Doberitz / Pomerania is the first German location for a tone-TV stations.
    • Manfred von Ardenne can be the principle of a color picture tube patent: Narrow strips of phosphors in the three primary colors are closely juxtaposed arranged so that they complement each other with the electron flow to white light. A separate control of the three colors has not yet provided.
  • 1932
    • The company AEG and BASF start for the magnetic tape method of Fritz Pfleumer to care (1928). They develop new devices and tapes, in which celluloid is used instead of paper as a carrier material.
    • In Britain, the BBC sends first radio programs time-shifted instead of live.
    • The company telephone and radio apparatus factory Ideal AG (today Blaupunkt) provides a car radio using Bowden cables to control it from the steering column.
  • 1933
    • After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany is broadcasting finally a political tool. Systematic censorship is to prevent opposition and spread the "Aryan culture". Series production of the " People's recipient VE 301 "starts.
    • Edwin Howard Armstrong demonstrates that frequency-modulated (FM) radio transmissions are less susceptible to interference than amplitude-modulated (AM). However, practical application is long delayed.
    • In the USA the first opened drive-in theater.
  • 1934: First commercial stereo recordings find little favor - the necessary playback devices are still too expensive. The term "High Fidelity" is embossed around this time.
  • 1935
    • AEG and BASF place at the Berlin Radio Show, the tape recorder " Magnetophon K1 "and the appropriate magnetic tapes before. In case of fire in the exhibition hall all four exhibited devices are destroyed.
    • In Germany the world's first regular television program operating for about 250 mostly public reception points starts in Berlin and the surrounding area. The mass production of television receivers is - probably due to the high price of 2,500 Reichsmarks - not yet started.
    • At the same time, the research institute of the German Post (RPF) begins with development work for a color television methods, but which are later reinstated due to the Second World War.
  • 1936
    • Olympic Games in Berlin broadcast live.
    • "Olympia suitcase", battery-powered portable radio receiver, introduced.
    • The first mobile television camera (180 lines, all-electronic) is used for live television broadcasts of the Olympic Games.
    • Also in the UK are first regular television broadcasts - now for the perfect electronic EMI system, which soon replaced the mechanical part Baird system - broadcast.
    • Video telephony connections between booths in Berlin and Leipzig. Later connections from Berlin to Nuremberg and Munich added.
    • The Frenchman Raymond Valtat reports on a patent, which describes the principle of working with binary numbers abacus.
    • Konrad Zuse works on a dual electromechanical computing machine that is ready in 1937.
  • 1937
    • First sapphire needle for records of the company Siemens
    • The interlaced video method is introduced on TVr to reduce image flicker. The transmitter Witzleben uses the new standard with 441 lines and 25 image changes, i.e. 50 fields of 220 half-lines. Until the HDTV era the interlace method remains in use.
    • First movie encoder make it possible not to send the TV live, but to rely on recordings.
  • 1938
    • The improved AEG tape-recorder "Magnetophon K4" is first used in radio studios. The belt speed is 77 cm / s, which at 1000 m length of tape has a playing time of 22 minutes.
    • Werner Flechsig invents the shadow mask method for separate control of the three primary colors in a color picture tube.
  • 1939
    • On the "16th Great German Radio and television broadcasting exhibition Berlin 1939 ", the" German Unity television receiver E1 "and announces the release of free commercial television. Due to the difficult political and economic situation, only about 50 devices are sold instead of the planned 10,000.
    • In the USA the first regular television broadcasts take place.
  • 1940
    • The development of television technology for military purposes increases the resolution to 1029 lines at 25 frames per second. Commercial HDTV television reached that resolution almost half a century later.
    • The problem of band noise with tape devices is reduced dramatically by the invention of radio frequency bias of Walter Weber and Hans-Joachim von Braunmühl.
  • 1942 : The first all-electronic computer is used by John Vincent Atanasoff, but quickly fades into oblivion. Four years later the ENIAC completed - the beginning of the end of Electromechanics in computers and calculators.
  • 1945-1947 : American soldiers capture in Germany some tape recorders. This and the nullified German patents leads to the development of the first tape recorders in the United States. The first home device " Sound Mirror "by the Brush Development Co. is there on the market.
  • 1948
    • The American physicist and industrialist Edwin Herbert Land (1909-1991) launches the first instant camera, Polaroid camera Model 95 on the market.
    • Three American engineers at Bell Laboratories (John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley) invent the transistor. Its lesser size and power compared with electron tubes brings (from 1955) portable radio receivers starting its march through all areas of electronics.
    • The Hungarian-American physicist Peter Carl Goldmark (1906-1977) invents the vinyl record (first published 1952), much less noisy than their predecessors shellac. Thanks to micro-groove (100 grooves per cm) can play 23 minutes per side. The LP record is born. This one is the redemption of the claim "high fidelity one step closer" to the end of the shellac era.
    • The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) leads the music format with 45 RPM records, later to conquer the market for cheap players. The first publication in Germany in this format appears 1953rd
    • The British physicist Dennis Gabor (1900-1979) invents holography. This method of recording and reproducing image with coherent light allows three-dimensional images. It was not until 1971 when the procedure gained practical importance, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics.
  • 1949
    • In Germany, FM broadcasting starts regular program operation.
    • Experimentally since 1943, series production since 1949 there are for professional use stereo - Tonbandgeräte and matching ribbons. Also portable devices for reporters, initially propelled by a spring mechanism, has been around since 1949
  • 1950
    • In the USA the first prerecorded audio tapes are marketed.
    • Also in the USA the company Zenith markets the first TV with cable remote control for channel selection.
  • 1951
    • The CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) broadcasts in New York the first color television program in the world, but using the field sequential standard, not reaching to the resolution of the black and white television and was to be incompatible.
    • With the " tape recorder F15 "from AEG 's first home tape recorder appears on the German market.
    • RCA Electronic Music is the first synthesizer prior to the creation of artificial electronic sounds.
  • 1952
    • Reintroduction of regular television broadcasts in Germany after the Second World War.
    • 20th Century Fox developed with "Cinemascope" the most successful wide-screen process to better compete with television. Only some 50 years later pulls the TV with the 16: 9 size screen after.
  • 1953
    • The "National Television System Committee" (Abbreviated as NTSC) normalized in the USA named after her black-and-white-compatible NTSC -Farbfernseh process. A year later, this method is introduced in the United States.
    • The car radio top model "Mexico" from Becker for the first time to an FM area (in mono) and an automatic tuning.
  • 1954
    • RCA developed for the first apparatus for recording video signals on magnetic tapes. 22 km magnetic tape are needed per hour. By 1956, succeeds the company Ampex through the use of multiple tracks, the tape speed to more practicable 38.1 cm / s lower.
    • The European Broadcasting Union is founded "Euro Vision".
    • First regular television broadcasts in Japan.
  • 1955
    • The second generation "TRADIC" (Transistorized Digital Computer), first to use only transistors therefore much smaller and more powerful than its predecessor tube computers.
    • The Briton Narinder S. Kapany investigated the propagation of light in fine glass fibers (optical fibers).
    • The first wireless remote control for a television US-based Zenith consists of a better flashlight, with which one lights up in one of the four devices corners to turn the unit on or off, change the channel or mute the sound.
  • 1956
    • The company Metz introduces radio device type 409 / 3D. First mass production of printed circuit boards. This follows since the 1930s, several improvements to the manufacturing technology.
    • The company Ampex introduces the "VR 1000" the first video recorder. That same year, CBS uses it for the first magnetic video tape recording (VTR) from. Although other programs are produced in color since 1954, the VTR cannot record color.
  • 1957 : The Frenchman Henri de France (1911-1986) developed the first generation of color TV system SECAM, which avoids some of the problems of the NTSC method. The weaknesses of the SECAM system be fixed in later modifications of the standard for the most part.
  • 1958
    • By merging the Edison patents and the Berliner, the Blumlein stereo recording method becomes commercially viable. The company Mercury Records launches the first stereo record on the market.
    • The company Ampex expands the video recorder with the Model "VR 1000 B" to give it color capability.

Véase también[editar]


Referencias[editar]

  1. Isaac Asimov:Biographical Encyclopedia of science and Engineering, London, 1975 ISBN 0-330-24323-3
  2. Elektrik Mühendisliği, s.259-260, Kemal İnan pp 245-263
  3. LarousseL1, 1979, p. 1086, article Phosphore.
  4. Fritz E. Froehlich, Allen Kent, The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17, page 36. Books.google.com. Consultado el 10 de septiembre de 2012. 
  5. The Electrical Engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
  6. Lott, Melissa C. «The Engineer Who Foreshadowed the Smart Grid--in 1921». Plugged In (en inglés). Scientific American Blog Network. Consultado el 14 de agosto de 2017.