Anexo:Tecnologías emergentes

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Esta es una lista de las tecnologías emergentes en la actualidad, que contiene algunos de los más destacados desarrollos, avances e innovaciones en diversos campos de la moderna tecnología. Las tecnologías emergentes son aquellas innovaciones técnicas que representan avances dentro de un campo para la competitiva.[1]

Agricultura[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
Robot Agrícola[2] Investigación y desarrollo, proyectos de prueba
Sistema ecológico cerrados[3][4][5] Investigación y desarrollo, trabajando en demostraciones (ej. Biosfera 2) Agronomía Agricultura, investigación científica, Colonización del espacio Invernadero, Proyecto Eden, Bioshelter, Invernadero de agua marina, Sistema de invernadero de cosecha perpetua
Carne cultivada Investigación y desarrollo[6][7][8] Ganadería, Pesca[8] Protectora de Animales, recursos eficientes, carne más saludable y más barata.[8] New Harvest
Agricultura de precisión Investigación y desarrollo, difusión
Granja vertical Investigación, desarrollo, experimentos, y difusiones[9][10][11] Agricultura intensiva Cultivos y producción de carne.

Ingeniería del clima[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
La eliminación del dióxido de carbono atmosférico Investigación y desarrollo Fuentes de fósiles Mitigación del cambio climático, cerrando el ciclo del carbono, insumo para la producción de combustible de carbón neutral Virgin Earth Challenge

Construcción[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
Impresión 3D y Bioimpresión 3D Producción comercial[12][13] Producción de prototipos manuales, algunos métodos de producción en masa que carecen de capacidad de personalización La rápida creación de prototipos y la producción de los objetos más baratos, con potencial para personalizar significativamente los productos para los consumidores individuales, ejemplo, edificios,[14]​ carros,[15]​ electrónicos,[16]​ muebles,[17]​ adornos o ropas[18] Proyecto RepRap, Contour Crafting**, D-Shape
Claytronicas Hipotético, experimento La impresión 3D, métodos y herramientas de fabricación tradicionales
Ensamblador molecular Hipotético, experimento La impresión 3D, métodos y herramientas de fabricación tradicionales Replicator (Star Trek), Von Neumann universal constructor
Niebla útil Hipotético, experimento

Arquitectura[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
Arcología Investigación, desarrollo, comercialización
Ciudad abovedada En progreso en Dubai[19] Tiempo controlado por la ciudad, la colonización de otros órganos

Ciencia de los materiales[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
Aerogel Hipotéticos, experimentos, difusión, primeros usos.[20] Aislamiento tradicional, Vidrio Aislamiento mejorado, aislante de vidrio, conectores para oleoductos, aeroespacial, alta temperatura y aplicaciones de frío extremo.
Metal amorfo Experimentos Kevlar Blindaje
Bioplástico Algunos productos desarrollados. Plásticos de combustibles fósiles
Polímero conductor Investigación, experimentos, prototipos Conductores Alambres ligeros y más baratos, materiales antiestáticos, célula fotovoltaica orgánica.
Femtotecnología, Picotecnología Hipotético Presente nuclear Nuevos materiales; armas nucleares, energía
Fullereno Experimentos, difusión Nanotubos de carbono y diamantes sintéticos (por ejemplo buckypaper) Materia programable
Grafeno Hipotéticos, experimentos, difusión, primeros usos[21][22] Circuito integrado a base de silicio Components with higher strength to weight ratios, transistors that operate at higher frequency, lower cost of display screens in mobile devices, storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars, sensors to diagnose diseases[23]
Superconductividad de alta temperatura Cryogenic receiver front-end (CRFE) RF and microwave filter systems for mobile phone base stations; prototypes in dry ice; Hypothetical and experiments for higher temperatures[24] Copper wire, semiconductor integral circuits No loss conductors, frictionless bearings, magnetic levitation, lossless high-capacity accumulators, electric cars, heat-free integral circuits and processors
Fluidos magnetoreológicos o Ferrofluido developed and researched Shock absorber Magnetorheological damper heavy motor damping, operator seat/cab damping in construction vehicles, seismic dampers positioned in building absorbing detrimental shock waves and oscillations within the structure making them earthquake-proof, enhance body armour fluid bullet resistant, Humvees, and various other all-terrain vehicles employ dynamic MR shock absorbers/dampers. Magnetorheological finishing was used in the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope's corrective lens, shock absorbers of a vehicle's suspension are filled with magnetorheological fluid. Electrorheological fluid
Superfluidez Superfluid gyroscopes already exist but work at very low temperatures Mechanical gyroscope, flywheel High-precision measure of gravity, navigation and maneuver devices, possible devices to emit gravitomagnetic field, frictionless mechanical devices
LiTraCon Experiments, already used to make Europe Gate Glass Construction of skyscrapers, towers, and sculptures like Europe Gate
Metamateriales Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion[25] Classical optics Microscopes, cameras, metamaterial cloaking, cloaking devices
Espuma metálica Research, commercialization Hulls Space colonies, floating cities
Multi-function structures[26] Hypothetical, experiments, some prototypes, few commercial Composite materials mostly Wide range, e.g., self health monitoring, self healing material, morphing
Nanomateriales: Nanotubo Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, early uses[27][28] Structural steel and aluminium Stronger, lighter materials, space elevator Potential applications of carbon nanotubes, carbon fiber
Materia programable Hypothetical, experiments[29][30] Coatings, catalysts Wide range, e.g., claytronics, synthetic biology
Punto cuántico Research, experiments, prototypes[31] LCD, LED Quantum dot laser, quantum dot display, future use as programmable matter in display technologies (TV, projection), optical data communications (high-speed data transmission), medicine (laser scalpel)
Siliceno Hypothetical, research Field-effect transistors
Superaleación Research, diffusion Aluminum, titanium, composite materials Aircraft jet engines
Diamante sintético Research Silicon transistors Electronics
hypereutectic alloy Research, commercialization Casting Metals Hypereutectic piston
super-plastic alloy Research, commercialization Casting Metals Superplasticity
Polímero conductor Research, commercialization Organic Circuits Electrical Conduction Polímero conductor

Pantallas[editar]

Tecnología emergente Estatus Tecnología potencialmente desechadas Aplicación potencial Artículos relacionados
Pantalla 3D Research, commercialization[32][33] other display technologies, CRT, LCD Television, computer interfaces, cinemas Autostereoscopic display, stereoscopic display, volumetric display, Holographic display, Light Field display, Nintendo 3DS, HTC Evo 3D
Ferro Liquid Display o FLCD Some commercial products
Field emission display o FED Research
Holografía (Holographic display, Computer-generated holography) Diffusion[34][35][36] Display technologies
Pantalla moduladora interferométrica Development, commercializing[37] Other display technologies, CRT, LCD, plasma, e-paper Non-emissive displays with fast response times and potentially the most realistic colours of all display technologies Interferometric modulator display, comparison of display technology
Pantalla láser first commercial Laser TV in 2008, Mitsubishi LaserVue TV LCD and plasma displays Displays with very wide colour gamut Laser TV, Comparison of display technology
Pantallas OLED Diffusion, commercialization[38][39][40] LCD and plasma displays Displays, lighting OLED TV, Comparison of display technology
Organic light-emitting transistor Development
Phased-array optics Hypothetical[41][42] Conventional display devices (e.g., television) Mass production of 3-dimensional imagery
Screenless display (Virtual retinal display, Bionic contact lens), EyeTap Hypothetical, experiments[43] Traditional displays Augmented reality, virtual reality, EyeTap could allow the user to reference the blue prints like in a construction yard, in a 3D manner, Delivers the user constant up to date information on the stock market, the user's corporation, and meeting statuses, visual disabilities Head-mounted display, Head-up display, adaptive optics
Telescopic pixel display In development
Time-multiplexed optical shutter Commercialized
Volumetric display Working prototypes 3-dimensional imagery Swept-volume display

Aplicaciones para el hogar[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Bead washing machine Commercialization[44] Traditional washing machines Washing with small consumption of water, electrical energy and detergents
Magnetic refrigeration Already used for achieving cryogenic temperatures in the laboratory setting (below 10K) Conventional refrigerators Refrigeration without the need for compression and with more energy efficient which may be in refrigerators, air conditioners and spacecraft
Qarnot Commercialization[45] Conventional heaters, supercomputers, datacenters Computing and heating
V-tex Commercialization[46] Conventional refrigerators Cooling drinks

Electrónica[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Biometrics Diffusion Keys and ID documents
Digital scent technology Diffusion Smell-O-Vision, iSmell
Electronic nose Research, commercialization[47][48] X-ray and MRI scans for detecting cancer Detecting spoiled food, chemical weapons and cancer
E-textiles Research, diffusion[49]
Flexible electronics Research, development, some prototypes[50][51] Flexible and folding electronic devices (such as smartphones), Flexible solar cells which are lightweight, can be rolled up for launch, and are easily deployable Nokia Morph, Flexible organic light-emitting diode
Memristor Working prototype[52][53] Some current integrated circuits, many other electronics devices Smaller, faster, lower power consuming storage, analogue electronics, programmable logic,[54]signal processing,[55]neural networks,[56]control systems,[57]reconfigurable computing,[58]brain-computer interfaces[59]​ and RFID,[60]pattern recognition[61]
Molecular electronics Research and Development
Nanoelectromechanical systems Research and Development
Spintronics Working prototypes[62] Mechanical magnetic hard disk drives Data storage, computing devices MRAM
Thermal copper pillar bump Working prototypes in discrete devices Conventional thermal systems, heat sinks, bulk thermoelectrics Electric circuit cooling; micro-fluidic actuators; small-device thermoelectric power generation Ultra high definition holographic disc, Metal–insulator transition

Energía[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Airborne wind turbine Research[63][64][65] Fossil fuels Producing electricity KiteGen
Artificial photosynthesis Research, experiments[66]​ growing interest in a macroscience global project[67] Fossil fuel or 'archived' photosynthesis Improve natural photosynthesis, so roads buildings and vehicles convert sunlight and water into hydrogen and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates Sustainocene, Renewable energy, Nanotechnology
Biofuels Diffusion[68] Fossil fuels Energy storage, more so for transport Issues relating to biofuels
Concentrated solar power Growing markets in California, Spain, Northern Africa[69] Fossil fuels, photovoltaics Producing electricity DESERTEC, BrightSource Energy, Solar Millennium
Electric double-layer capacitor Diffusion, continued development[70] Chemical batteries Regenerative braking; energy storage: generally faster charging, longer lasting, more flexible, greener
Energy harvesting Experiments Batteries Constant energy source for mobile, wearable and ubiquitous devices
Flywheel energy storage Some commercial examples
Fusion power Hypothetical, experiments Fossil fuels, renewable energy, nuclear fission power Producing electricity, heat, fusion torch recycling with waste heat ITER, NIF, Polywell, Dense plasma focus, Muon-catalyzed fusion
Generation IV reactor Research, Experiments Traditional nuclear power reactors, fossil fuels Producing electricity, heat, transmutation of nuclear waste stockpiles from traditional reactors
Grid energy storage Increasing use
Home fuel cell Research, commercialisation[71][72][73] Electrical grid Off-the-grid, producing electricity Autonomous building, Bloom Energy Server
Hydrogen economy Diffusion of hydrogen fuel cells; Hypothetical, experiments for lower cost hydrogen production[74] Other energy storage methods: chemical batteries, fossil fuels Energy storage
Lithium-air battery Research, experiments[75] Other energy storage methods: hydrogen, chemical batteries, some uses of fossil fuels Laptops, mobile phones, long-range electric cars; storing energy for electric grid
Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium iron phosphate battery Commercialization
Lithium–sulfur battery Research and Development
Molten salt battery Applications and continuing research
Molten salt reactor Research, Experiments Traditional nuclear power reactors, fossil fuels Producing electricity, heat
Nanowire battery Experiments, prototypes[76][77] Other energy storage methods: hydrogen, chemical batteries, some uses of fossil fuels Laptops, mobile phones, long-range electric cars; storing energy for electric grid
Nantenna Research[78][79][80] Fossil fuels Producing electricity
Ocean thermal energy conversion Prototype
Silicon–air battery Experiments
Smart grid Research, diffusion[81][82][83] Smart meter, SuperSmart Grid
Solar roadway Research[84][85][86] Fossil fuels Producing electricity
Space-based solar power Hypothetical
Thorium fuel cycle Research started in the 1960s, still ongoing Uranium based nuclear power, fossil fuels Producing electricity, heat
Vortex engine Chimney, Cooling tower, Solar updraft tower Power generation.
Wireless energy transfer Prototypes, diffusion, short range consumer products[87] Power cords, plugs, batteries Wirelessly powered equipment: laptop, cell phones, electric cars, etc. WiTricity, resonant inductive coupling
Zero-energy building Expansion Electrical grid and power plants All homes Passive house

Entretenimiento[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Computer-generated imagery Developing Photomodels, all film-related jobs (including public service announcements, music videos, viral videos, commercials and pornography), except for directors, screenwriters and graphic designers[88] Films, photos
Immersive virtual reality Hypothetical, limited commercialization Consensus reality An artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in consensus reality. Virtusphere, 3rd Space Vest, haptic suit, immersive technology, simulated reality, holodeck (fictional)

TIs y comunicaciones[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
4G cellular communication First commercial LTE networks deployed in Sweden December 2009; candidate systems LTE-advanced and IEEE 802.16m (Mobile WiMAX Release 2) in development Broadband Pervasive computing Mobile broadband, mobile TV, Interactive TV, 3D-TV,[89]holographic cameras[89]
5G cellular communications Research and development
Ambient intelligence Hypothetical
Artificial brain Research[90] Treatment of neurological disease, artificial intelligence Blue Brain Project, Human Brain Project
Artificial intelligence Hypothetical, experiments; limited uses in specialized domains[91][92][93] Human decision, analysis, etc. Creating intelligent devices and robots; AI can counsel (or even take charge) in scientific projects, government, army, corporate governance, film and books creation, inventions etc. Progress in artificial intelligence, technological singularity, applications of artificial intelligence
Atomtronics Hypothetical
Augmented Reality Diffusion
Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor Research and development Silicon-based transistors Extending moore's law
Counterparty (technology) Diffusion Bookmaker, stock exchange, central banking Decentralized financial instruments,[94]betting, free market Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, Digital currency
Cryptocurrency Diffusion Central banking Money supply, World reserve currency Bitcoin, Digital currency
Cybermethodology
Exascale computing Projects
Internet of Things Diffusion
Emerging memory technologies T-RAM, Z-RAM, TTRAM, CBRAM, SONOS, RRAM, Racetrack memory, NRAM, Phase-change memory, FJG, Millipede memory In development Current memory technologies
Fourth-generation optical discs (3D optical data storage, Holographic data storage) Research, prototyping[95] Some mass storage methods/devices, magnetic tape data storage, optical data storage Storing and archiving data previously erased for economic reasons Blu-ray Disc, Optical storage
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units Diffusion of non standardized methods CPU for a few specialized uses Order of magnitude faster processing of parallelizable algorithms
Exocortex Diffusion of primitive amplifications; working prototypes of more; Hypothetical, experiments on more substantial amplification Libraries, schools, training, pocket calculators
Machine translation Diffusion[96][97] Human translation of natural languages, in areas where misunderstanding is non-critical and language is formalized Easier and cheaper cross-cultural communication
Machine vision Research, prototyping, commercialization[90] Biotic vision and perception, including humans Biometrics, controlling processes (e.g., in driverless car, automated guided vehicle), detecting events (e.g., in visual surveillance), interaction (e.g., in human-computer interaction), robot vision Computer vision, pattern recognition, digital image processing
Mobile collaboration and e-learning Development, commercialization[98] Transport of humans, traditional video-conferencing systems Extends the capabilities of video conferencing for use on hand-held mobile devices in real-time over secure networks. For use in diverse industries such as manufacturing, energy, healthcare.[99]Telework
Optical computing Hypothetical, experiments; some components of integrated circuits have been developed[100] Many electronics devices, integrated circuits Smaller, faster, lower power consuming computing
Quantum computing Hypothetical, experiments,[101]​ commercialization[102] Atomtronics,
Electronic computing, optical computing, quantum clock
Much faster computing, for some kinds of problems, chemical modeling, new materials with programmed properties, Hypothetical of high-temperature superconductivity and superfluidity
Quantum cryptography Commercialization[103] Secure communications
Radio-frequency identification Diffusion of high cost[104][105][106] Barcode Smartstores - RFID based self checkout (keeping track of all incoming and outgoing products), food packaging, smart shelves, smart carts. See: potential uses
Semantic Web or answer machine Research, limited use Web 2.0 Making the web machine-readable by annotating data on the web based on its meaning Corporate Semantic Web, Semantic Web Services, Semantic Web Stack, Web 3.0
Software-defined radio Development, commercialization Traditional, frequency-specific radio circuits, dedicated signal processing hardware Cognitive radio, Mesh networks, Software defined antenna GNU Radio, Universal Software Radio Peripheral
Speech recognition Research, Development, Commercialization Mechanical input devices
Three-dimensional integrated circuit Development, commercialization[107][108] Conventional integrated circuit
Virtual Reality Diffusion Entertainment, education Oculus Rift
Wearable computer Diffusion

Medicina[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Artificial uterus Hypothetical, research Incubator, in vivo pregnancy, including host motherhood space travel, extracorporeal pregnancy, Reprogenetics, same-sex procreation
Body implants, prosthesis Trials, from animal (e.g., brain implants) to human clinical (e.g., insulin pump implant), to commercial production (e.g. pacemaker, joint replacement, cochlear implant) Various fields of medicine, warfare Brain implant, retinal implant Prosthetics, prosthetics in fiction, cyborg
Cryonics Hypothetical, research, commercialization (e.g. Cryonics Institute) Cemeteries Life extension
De-extinction Research, development, trials Animal husbandry, pets, zoos
Genetic engineering of organisms and viruses Research, development, commercialization[109][110] Other medical procedures (including aesthetic medicine and contraception), traditional warfare (genetically modified soldiers, ethnic bioweapon),[111]​ traditional animal husbandry and plant and fungus breeding, tattoo artism and fitness clubs and cosmetics and nutrition (because of new genes humans will be able to change on demand their look), gardening (because of new genes there will be no need to nurture plants), species-saving efforts (because of new genes they can adapt to new environments), traditional fuel production[112][113] Creating and modifying species (mainly improving their physical and mental capabilities), bio-machines, eliminating genetic disorders (gene therapy), new materials production,[114]​ healthier and cheaper food, creating drugs and vaccines, research in natural sciences, bioremediation,[115]​ detecting arsenic[116] Genetically modified food, superhuman, human enhancement, transhumanism, gene doping, designer baby, genetic pollution
Hibernation or suspended animation Research, development, animal trials[117] Surgical anaesthesia Organ transplantation, space travel, prolonged surgery, emergency care
Life extension, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence Research, experiments, animal testing[118][119][120] Existing treatments for age-related diseases[120] Increased life spans[120] Immortality, biological immortality
Male contraception and 100%-effective birth control methods[121][122] Research and Development Other birth control methods, abortion
Nanomedicines Research, experiments, limited use[123][124]
Nanosensors Research and Development
Oncolytic Virus Human trials (Talimogene laherparepvec, reolysin, JX-594), commercialisation (H101) Cancer therapy, imaging Oncolytic virus
Personalized medicine, full genome sequencing Research, experiments[125] Non-personalized medical procedures, including aesthetic medicine Personalized medical procedures, genome sequencing during drug trials Personal genomics
Plantibody clinical trials
Regenerative medicine Some laboratory trials[126] Life extension
Robotic surgery Research, diffusion[127][128][129] Surgeons untrained in robotic surgery
Stem cell treatments Research, experiments, phase I human trial spinal cord injury treatment (GERON), cultured cornea transplants[130][131] Other therapies Treatment for a wide range of diseases and injuries Stem cell, stem cell treatments, Skin cell gun,
Synthetic biology, synthetic genomics Research, development, first synthetic bacteria created May 2010[132][133] Chemical industry, petroleum industry, process manufacturing Creating infinitely scalable production processes based on programmable species of bacteria and other life forms BioBrick, iGEM, synthetic genomics
Tissue engineering Research, diffusion[134][135][136][137] Organ printing, Tooth regeneration
Tricorder Research and Development Medical examinations Diagnosing medical conditions Medical tricorder
Virotherapy Research, human trials Gene therapy, cancer therapy Virotherapy, Oncolytic Virus
Vitrification or cryoprotectant Hypothetical, some experiments[138] Ischemic damages Organ transplantation, cryonics

Neurociencia[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Ampakine Enhance attention span and alertness, and facilitate learning and memory
Brain-computer interface Research and commercialization Video games, television, movies and current communication devices and transport of humans. Faster communication and learning and "more real" entertainment (generation of feelings and informations in brain on demand). Control emotions in the mentally ill[139] Experience machine
Brain-reading, Neuroinformatics Research[140][141][142] Mind uploading, enabling individuals with brain damage to communicate[143]
Electroencephalography Research, diffusion[144][145] Keyboards and other interfaces Controlling electronic devices via brain waves

BrainGate.

Neuroprosthetics Visual prosthesis, brain implant, exocortex, retinal implant

Militar[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Antimatter weapon Hypothetical Nuclear weapons
Caseless ammunition Field tests and some niche markets Cartridges Lightweight Small Arms Technologies
Cloak of invisibility Successful experiments cloaking small objects under some conditions[146][147] Camouflage[147] Cloaking microscope tips at optical frequencies[147] Metamaterial cloaking
Directed energy weapon Research, development, some prototypes[148] Firearms Warfare Laser Weapon System
Electrolaser Research and development Taser
Electromagnetic weapons Research and development[149][150] Firearms Warfare Coilgun, Railgun
Electrothermal-chemical technology Research and development Conventional ammunition Tank, artillery, and close-in weapon systems
Force field Hypothetical, experiments[151] Armor Military and law enforcement, space travel Plasma window
Green bullet Development Current ammunition Environment-friendly ammunition
Laser weapon Research and development, trials Missile defense, anti-drone defense Tracking and destruction of rockets, bombs, drones etc.[152] Advanced Tactical Laser, High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System
Particle beam weapon Research and development Firearms Warfare Strategic Defense Initiative
Plasma weapon Research
Pure fusion weapon Hypothetical
Sonic weapon Research and development
Stealth technology Research and development Camouflage Electronic countermeasures Plasma stealth, Stealth aircraft, Radar-absorbent material
Vortex ring gun Research and development tear gas Crowd control
Wireless long-range electric shock weapon Expansion Firearms Law enforcement guns

El espacio exterior[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Anti-gravity Hypothetical and experiments[153][154]
Artificial gravity Research, development Space Travel
Asteroid mining Hypothetical, NASA has announced plans to capture and redirect an asteroid.[155]
Domed city NASA develops a geodesic dome for a moon base Weather-controlled city, colonization of the moon
Galileo In progress Older satellite navigation systems Localizing things with the accuracy of few centimeters: vehicles and ships and planes (even driverless ones), objects (like wallet or car keys) and people (e.g. it will navigate people, even blind ones, in buildings and cities). Also Gallileo will provide better charging systems on toll motorways and air traffic control[156]
Hypertelescope Hypothetical astronomy
Inflatable space habitat Developed, prototypes built and tested Traditional "aluminium can" space habitat modules Space habitats Bigelow Aerospace
Miniaturized satellite Research, development, some prototypes Conventional satellites Inexpensive satellites, constellations for low data rate communications, using formations to gather data from multiple points, in-orbit inspection of larger satellites.

Robótica[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Android, gynoid Research, development, prototypes, diffusion, commercializing[157] Disabled, infant and older people care, housekeeping, sex-worker, flight-attendant, model, hostess, waiter, security guard
Molecular nanotechnology, nanorobotics Hypothetical, experiments[158] Products and parts production, retail distribution Machines (desktop, industrial) that can make anything given the materials, cheap planetary terraforming
Powered exoskeleton Research, development, prototypes, diffusion, commercializing[159] Electric wheelchairs, forklifts Heavy lifting, paralysis, muscle related diseases, warfare, construction, firefighting, care for the elderly and disabled. LOPES (exoskeleton), ReWalk, Human Universal Load Carrier, fictional armor Iron Man's armor, Future Force Warrior
Self-reconfiguring modular robot Hypothetical, experiments, early prototypes Other ways to form physical structures and machines As a universal physical machine, SRCMR may change the way we make many physical structures and machines Robot, swarm robotics, autonomous research robot
Swarm robotics Hypothetical, experiments[160] Distributed computing, complexity in behavior by simplicity in architecture Autonomous construction, space construction Swarm intelligence, autonomous robotics, nanorobotics, particle swarm optimization, multi-agent systems, behavior-based robotics
Unmanned vehicle Research and development, diffusion, commercial Manned vehicles, human spying, shops, kitchens, restaurants (thanks to unmanned transport of goods) Transport of goods (e.g. food), mass surveillance, eavesdropping, oceanography, commercial aerial livestock monitoring, wildfire mapping, pipeline security, home security, road patrol and anti-piracy, patrol the nation's borders, scout property, and hunt down fugitives, oil, gas and mineral exploration and production, geophysical surveys, geomagnetic surveys, scientific research in areas too dangerous for pilots like a hurricane tornado hunter, firefighting,[161]​ military operations and peacekeeping operations, search and rescue, explosives and bomb disposal, gatekeeper and checkpoint operations, urban street presence, police raids in urban settings. Unmanned aerial vehicle, AeroVironment, AeroVironment Global Observer, AeroVironment Nano Hummingbird, Unmanned combat air vehicle, Unmanned ground vehicle, Unmanned space vehicle, Unmanned surface vehicle, Unmanned underwater vehicle, Autonomous underwater vehicle

Transporte[editar]

Emerging technology Status Potentially marginalized technologies Potential applications Related articles
Aeroscraft Prototype Heavy-lift, high altitude platform
Neumático sin aire Research, development, early prototypes[162][163][164] Conventional tire[164] Safer tires[164] Tweel
Métrica de Alcubierre Attempting to create a warp field in lab tests[165] Conventional space propulsion Interstellar exploration and colonization Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program
Vehículo de combustible alternativo Commercialization, diffusion Internal combustion engine Reducing air pollution, decreasing oil consumption Electric vehicle, Hydrogen vehicle, Compressed air vehicle
Beam-powered propulsion Hypothetical Laser propulsion
Vehículo autónomo Research, development, prototypes[166][167][168] Driver's licenses, rules of the road, traffic lights, traffic sign, highway patrols, vehicle insurances Reducing traffic collision, increasing road capacity, reducing air pollution, reducing traffic congestion Google driverless car, General Motors EN-V, CityCar, MIT Car
Electric car Commercialization Internal combustion engine
Flexible wings (X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing, Adaptive Compliant Wing), fluidic flight controls Experiments, prototypes[169][170][171][172][173] Other flight control systems: ailerons, elevators, elevons,

flaps, flaperons

Controlling aircraft, ships Aircraft flight control system, BAE Systems Demon, fluidics
Flying car Early commercialization, prototypes[174][175] Automobile, road More effective transportation Terrafugia Transition, Moller M400 Skycar, Urban Aeronautics X-Hawk, AeroMobil
Fusion rocket Research, development[176] Chemical rockets Fast Interplanetary Travel, with limited Interstellar applications
Hovertrain, Ground effect train Research, development[177][178] Conventional trains Trains with higher speed Aérotrain, Duke Hospital PRT, Hovercraft
High Altitude Platforms Experimentation Most satellites, cell phone towers Communications
Propulsor iónico In use
Mochila propulsora o backpack helicopter Early commercialization, prototypes[179][180] Automobile More effective transportation
Tren de levitación magnética, Vactrain Research, early commercialization[181][182][183] Conventional trains, the wheel Trains with higher speed Transrapid, Shanghai Maglev Train, Linimo
Levitación magnética Research, development, Commercialization (Maglev Train) Wheels, tires, conventional transportation systems High temperature superconductivity, cryogenics, low temperature refrigerators, superconducting magnet design and construction, fiber reinforced plastics for vehicles and structural concretes, communication and high power solid-state controls, vehicle design (aerodynamics and noise mitigation), precision manufacturing, construction and fabrication of concrete structures,[184]​ maglev car, maglev based spacecraft launch Vactrain, Levicar
Catapulta electromagnética Prototypes
Float to Orbit Hypothetical Conventional space launch Space launch
Transporte rápido personal Early commercialization, diffusion[185][186] Automobile More effective transportation Morgantown PRT, ULTra
Physical Internet Research[187] Conventional logistics
Vactrain Research, development High-speed rail Faster way to get somewhere ET3 Global Alliance, Hyperloop
Propulsión nuclear de pulso Hypothetical Chemical rockets Fast Interplanetary Travel, with some possible Interstellar Travel applications
Propellant depot Research, development Heavy lift rockets enabling deep-space missions with more massive payloads, satellite life extension, ultimately lowering the cost per kg launched to space
Motor de detonación por pulsos Testbed demos
Sistema de lanzamiento reutilizable Research, development Expendable launch system Surface-to-orbit transport SpaceX reusable launch system development program
Scramjet Research, development[188][189][190] Conventional jet engine Hypersonic aircraft NASA X-43
Vela solar In 2010, IKAROS was the world's first spacecraft designed to use solar sailing propulsion to be successfully launched Space travel
Ascensor espacial Research, development[191] Non-rocket spacelaunch, Orbital ring, Sky hook, Space fountain
Spaceplane Research, development[192][193][194] Conventional airliners Hypersonic transport A2, Skylon
Avión supersónico Commercialization existed, diffusion Conventional airliners Airliner with higher speed Concorde, Túpolev Tu-144
Sistema de comunicación vehicular Research and development, some diffusion Automobile safety vehicle safety obstacle inform others warnings on entering intersections, Traffic management Accommodating ambulances, fire trucks, and police cars to a specific situation such as hot pursuits and bad weather, Driver assistance systems, Automated highways. Artificial Passenger, Dedicated short-range communications, Sistemas inteligentes de transporte

See also[editar]

General
Disruptive innovation, Industrial Ecology, List of inventors, List of inventions, Sustainable development, Technology readiness level, Anthropogenics
Ethics
Casuistry, Computer ethics, Engineering ethics, Nanoethics, Bioethics, Neuroethics, Roboethics

Further reading[editar]

Referencias[editar]

  1. International Congress Innovation and Technology XXI: Strategies and Policies Towards the XXI Century, & Soares, O. D. D. (1997). Innovation and technology: Strategies and policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
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Enlaces externos[editar]