Anexo:Entidades de caracteres XML y HTML

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En los documentos SGML, HTML y XML, las construcciones lógicas llamadas character data y attribute values consisten en secuencias de caracteres, en la cual cada caracter puede manifestarse directamente (representándose a sí mismo), o puede representarse mediante una serie de caracteres llamada referencia de caracteres, de las cuales hay dos tipos: una referencia numérica de caracter y referencia de entidades de caracteres. Este anexo lista las referencias de entidades de caracteres válidas en los documentos HTML y XML.

Una entidad de referencia de carácter refiere al contenido de una entidad nombrada. Una entidad declaration está creado por utilizar la sintaxis de tipo <!ENTITY nombre "valor"> en una definición de tipo de documento.

Formato[editar]

Una referencia de caracter numérica hace referencia a un caracter por su código Universal Character Set/Unicode, y usa el formato:

&#nnnn;

o

&#xhhhh;

donde nnnn es el código en base decimal, y hhhh es el código en base hexadecimal. La x debe ser minúsculaen los documentos XML. La forma nnnn o hhhh puede ser cualquier número de dígitos y puede incluir ceros. La forma hhhh puede combinar mayúsculas y minúsculas, siendo las maayúsculas el estilo usual.

En contraste, una referencia de entidades de caracteres hace referencia a un caracter por su nombre en una entidad SGML que posee el caracter deseado como su reemplazo. La entidad debe estar ya predefinida (inclida dentro del lenguaje de marcado) o explícitamente declarada en una DTD. El formato es el mismo para cualquier entidad de referencia:

&name;

donde name es el nombre sensible a mayúsculas de la entidad. El punto y coma es obligatorio.

Estándares públicos de conjuntos entidades de caracteres[editar]

ISO Entity Sets
SGML suplió un conjunto considerable de declaraciones de entidades para los caracteres más usados en la publicación occidental, para los sistemas de escritura latina, griega y cirílica. La American Mathematical Society también contribuyo para añadir símbolos matemáticos.
HTML Entity Sets
Las versiones tempranas de HTML construyeron pequeños conjuntos de caracteres, relacionados a los caracteres encontrados en el árbol de fuentes Western 8-bit.
MathML Entity Sets
El W3C desarrolló un conjunto de entidades de caracteres para MathML.
XML Entity Sets
El W3C MathML Working Group mantiene el conjunto público de entidades ISO, combinadas con las entidades MathML en el XML Entity Definitions for Characters. Este conjunto suple las necesidades en los documentos XHTML, MathML y las futuras versiones de HTML.
HTML5
HTML5 adopta las entidades XML como named character references, sin embargo las reafirma sin referencia a sus fuentes y no las agrupa en conjuntos. Adicionalmente, la especificación de HTML5 provee mapeo entre nombre y cadena de caracteres Unicode con el uso de JSON.

Numerosos conjuntos de entidades se han desarrollado a partir de requerimientos particulares, y para scripts largos y cortos. Sin embargo, la llegada de Unicode los ha sustituido ampliamente.

Entidades predefinidas en XML[editar]

La especificación de XML no utiliza el término "character entity" o "character entity reference". La especificación XML utiliza cinco "entidades predefinidas" representando caracteres especiales, y requiere que todos los procesadores de XML los utilicen. Las entidades pueden ser declaradas explícitamente en el DTD, también, pero si se hace eso, el texto remplazado debe ser el mismo que en su versión original. XML también permite otras entidades nombradas de cualquiér tamaño para ser definidos en un entorno por documento.

La tabla de abajo enlista cinco entidades predefinidas de XML. La columna "Nombre" menciona el nombre de la entidad. La columna "Caracter" muestra el caracter. Para renderizar el caracter, el formato &name; es usado; por ejemplo, &amp; se renderiza como &. La columna "Punto de código Unicode" cita el caracter mediante el código estándar de notación UCS/Unicode "U+", que muestra el punto de caracter en hexadecimal. El equivalente decimal del caracter está escrito en el paréntesis. La columna "Estándar" indica la primera versión de XML que incluye la entidad. La columna "Descripción" cita el caracter vía su nombre canónico UCS/Unicode.

Nombre Caracter Punto de código Unicode (Decimal) Estándar Descripción
quot " U+0022 (34) XML 1.0 Comillas dobles
amp & U+0026 (38) XML 1.0 Símbolo et(&) o Ampersand
apos ' U+0027 (39) XML 1.0 Apóstrofe
lt < U+003C (60) XML 1.0 Signo menor que
gt > U+003E (62) XML 1.0 Signo mayor que

Referencias de entidades de caracteres en HTML[editar]

El DTDs de HTML 4 define 252 entidades con nombre, referencias que actúan como aliases mnemotécnicos para algunos caracteres de Unicode. La especificación de HTML 4 requiere el uso de DTDs estándar y no permite a los usuarios usar entidades adicionales.

En la tabla de abajo, La columna "Estándar" indica la primera versión del HTML DTD que define la referencia de la entidad del caracter. HTML 4.01 no provee ninguna referencia de caracteres nueva.

Para usar alguna de estas referencias en un documento HTML o XML, ingresa un ampersand( &) seguido por el nombre de la entidad y un semicolon (;), e.j., &amp; para el ampersand ("&").

or

Nombre Carácter Código Unicode (decimal) Estándar DTD[a] Old ISO subset[b] Descripción[c]
quot " U+0022 (34) HTML 2.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum comillas inglesas
amp & U+0026 (38) HTML 2.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum ampersand
apos ' U+0027 (39) XHTML 1.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum apóstrofo
lt < U+003C (60) HTML 2.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum signo menos-que
gt > U+003E (62) HTML 2.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum signo más-que
nbsp U+00A0 (160) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum espacio duro [d]
iexcl ¡ U+00A1 (161) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum signo de exclamación de apertura
cent ¢ U+00A2 (162) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum centavo
pound £ U+00A3 (163) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum libra
curren ¤ U+00A4 (164) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum signo de moneda
yen ¥ U+00A5 (165) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum yen japonés, yuan chino
brvbar ¦ U+00A6 (166) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum broken bar (broken vertical bar)
sect § U+00A7 (167) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum signo de sección
uml ¨ U+00A8 (168) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOdia diéresis
copy © U+00A9 (169) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum copyright
ordf ª U+00AA (170) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum indicador ordinal femenino
laquo « U+00AB (171) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum comillas angulares de apertura
not ¬ U+00AC (172) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum negación lógica
shy   U+00AD (173) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum soft hyphen (discretionary hyphen)
reg ® U+00AE (174) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum marcaregistrada
macr ¯ U+00AF (175) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOdia macron
deg ° U+00B0 (176) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum grados
plusmn ± U+00B1 (177) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum signo más-menos
sup2 ² U+00B2 (178) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum 2 en superíndice
sup3 ³ U+00B3 (179) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum 3 en superíndice
acute ´ U+00B4 (180) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOdia acento grave
micro µ U+00B5 (181) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum signo de micro
para U+00B6 (182) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum párrafo
middot · U+00B7 (183) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum punto medio
cedil ¸ U+00B8 (184) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOdia cedilla
sup1 ¹ U+00B9 (185) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum 1 en superíndicendice
ordm º U+00BA (186) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum indicador ordinal masculino
raquo » U+00BB (187) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum right-pointing double angle quotation mark (right pointing guillemet)
frac14 ¼ U+00BC (188) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum vulgar fraction one quarter (fraction one quarter)
frac12 ½ U+00BD (189) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum vulgar fraction one half (fraction one half)
frac34 ¾ U+00BE (190) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum vulgar fraction three quarters (fraction three quarters)
iquest ¿ U+00BF (191) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum inverted question mark (turned question mark)
Agrave À U+00C0 (192) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with grave accent (Latin capital letter A grave)
Aacute Á U+00C1 (193) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with acute accent
Acirc  U+00C2 (194) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with circumflex
Atilde à U+00C3 (195) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with tilde
Auml Ä U+00C4 (196) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with diaeresis
Aring Å U+00C5 (197) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter A with ring above (Latin capital letter A ring)
AElig Æ U+00C6 (198) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter AE (Latin capital ligature AE)
Ccedil Ç U+00C7 (199) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter C with cedilla
Egrave È U+00C8 (200) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter E with grave accent
Eacute É U+00C9 (201) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter E with acute accent
Ecirc Ê U+00CA (202) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter E with circumflex
Euml Ë U+00CB (203) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter E with diaeresis
Igrave Ì U+00CC (204) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter I with grave accent
Iacute Í U+00CD (205) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter I with acute accent
Icirc Î U+00CE (206) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter I with circumflex
Iuml Ï U+00CF (207) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter I with diaeresis
ETH Ð U+00D0 (208) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter Eth
Ntilde Ñ U+00D1 (209) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter N with tilde
Ograve Ò U+00D2 (210) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with grave accent
Oacute Ó U+00D3 (211) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with acute accent
Ocirc Ô U+00D4 (212) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with circumflex
Otilde Õ U+00D5 (213) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with tilde
Ouml Ö U+00D6 (214) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with diaeresis
times × U+00D7 (215) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum multiplication sign
Oslash Ø U+00D8 (216) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter O with stroke (Latin capital letter O slash)
Ugrave Ù U+00D9 (217) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter U with grave accent
Uacute Ú U+00DA (218) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter U with acute accent
Ucirc Û U+00DB (219) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter U with circumflex
Uuml Ü U+00DC (220) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter U with diaeresis
Yacute Ý U+00DD (221) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter Y with acute accent
THORN Þ U+00DE (222) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin capital letter THORN
szlig ß U+00DF (223) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter sharp s (ess-zed); see German Eszett
agrave à U+00E0 (224) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with grave accent
aacute á U+00E1 (225) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with acute accent
acirc â U+00E2 (226) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with circumflex
atilde ã U+00E3 (227) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with tilde
auml ä U+00E4 (228) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with diaeresis
aring å U+00E5 (229) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter a with ring above
aelig æ U+00E6 (230) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter ae (Latin small ligature ae)
ccedil ç U+00E7 (231) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter c with cedilla
egrave è U+00E8 (232) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter e with grave accent
eacute é U+00E9 (233) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter e with acute accent
ecirc ê U+00EA (234) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter e with circumflex
euml ë U+00EB (235) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter e with diaeresis
igrave ì U+00EC (236) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter i with grave accent
iacute í U+00ED (237) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter i with acute accent
icirc î U+00EE (238) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter i with circumflex
iuml ï U+00EF (239) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter i with diaeresis
eth ð U+00F0 (240) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter eth
ntilde ñ U+00F1 (241) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter n with tilde
ograve ò U+00F2 (242) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with grave accent
oacute ó U+00F3 (243) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with acute accent
ocirc ô U+00F4 (244) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with circumflex
otilde õ U+00F5 (245) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with tilde
ouml ö U+00F6 (246) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with diaeresis
divide ÷ U+00F7 (247) HTML 3.2 HTMLlat1 ISOnum division sign (obelus)
oslash ø U+00F8 (248) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter o with stroke (Latin small letter o slash)
ugrave ù U+00F9 (249) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter u with grave accent
uacute ú U+00FA (250) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter u with acute accent
ucirc û U+00FB (251) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter u with circumflex
uuml ü U+00FC (252) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter u with diaeresis
yacute ý U+00FD (253) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter y with acute accent
thorn þ U+00FE (254) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter thorn
yuml ÿ U+00FF (255) HTML 2.0 HTMLlat1 ISOlat1 Latin small letter y with diaeresis
OElig ΠU+0152 (338) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOlat2 Latin capital ligature oe[e]
oelig œ U+0153 (339) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOlat2 Latin small ligature oe[e]
Scaron Š U+0160 (352) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOlat2 Latin capital letter s with caron
scaron š U+0161 (353) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOlat2 Latin small letter s with caron
Yuml Ÿ U+0178 (376) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOlat2 Latin capital letter y with diaeresis
fnof ƒ U+0192 (402) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech Latin small letter f with hook (function, florin)
circ ˆ U+02C6 (710) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub modifier letter circumflex accent
tilde ˜ U+02DC (732) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOdia small tilde
Alpha Α U+0391 (913) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Alpha
Beta Β U+0392 (914) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Beta
Gamma Γ U+0393 (915) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Gamma
Delta Δ U+0394 (916) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Delta
Epsilon Ε U+0395 (917) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Epsilon
Zeta Ζ U+0396 (918) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Zeta
Eta Η U+0397 (919) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Eta
Theta Θ U+0398 (920) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Theta
Iota Ι U+0399 (921) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Iota
Kappa Κ U+039A (922) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Kappa
Lambda Λ U+039B (923) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Lambda
Mu Μ U+039C (924) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Mu
Nu Ν U+039D (925) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Nu
Xi Ξ U+039E (926) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Xi
Omicron Ο U+039F (927) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Omicron
Pi Π U+03A0 (928) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Pi
Rho Ρ U+03A1 (929) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Rho
Sigma Σ U+03A3 (931) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Sigma
Tau Τ U+03A4 (932) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Tau
Upsilon Υ U+03A5 (933) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Upsilon
Phi Φ U+03A6 (934) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Phi
Chi Χ U+03A7 (935) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol Greek capital letter Chi
Psi Ψ U+03A8 (936) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Psi
Omega Ω U+03A9 (937) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek capital letter Omega
alpha α U+03B1 (945) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter alpha
beta β U+03B2 (946) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter beta
gamma γ U+03B3 (947) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter gamma
delta δ U+03B4 (948) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter delta
epsilon ε U+03B5 (949) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter epsilon
zeta ζ U+03B6 (950) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter zeta
eta η U+03B7 (951) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter eta
theta θ U+03B8 (952) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter theta
iota ι U+03B9 (953) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter iota
kappa κ U+03BA (954) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter kappa
lambda λ U+03BB (955) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter lambda
mu μ U+03BC (956) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter mu
nu ν U+03BD (957) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter nu
xi ξ U+03BE (958) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter xi
omicron ο U+03BF (959) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW Greek small letter omicron
pi π U+03C0 (960) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter pi
rho ρ U+03C1 (961) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter rho
sigmaf ς U+03C2 (962) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter final sigma
sigma σ U+03C3 (963) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter sigma
tau τ U+03C4 (964) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter tau
upsilon υ U+03C5 (965) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter upsilon
phi φ U+03C6 (966) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter phi
chi χ U+03C7 (967) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter chi
psi ψ U+03C8 (968) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter psi
omega ω U+03C9 (969) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek small letter omega
thetasym ϑ U+03D1 (977) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW Greek theta symbol
upsih ϒ U+03D2 (978) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW Greek Upsilon with hook symbol
piv ϖ U+03D6 (982) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOgrk3 Greek pi symbol
ensp (en búlgaro) U+2002 (8194) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub en space[d]
emsp (en búlgaro) U+2003 (8195) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub em space[d]
thinsp (en búlgaro) U+2009 (8201) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub thin space[d]
zwnj   U+200C (8204) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW RFC 2070 zero-width non-joiner
zwj   U+200D (8205) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW RFC 2070 zero-width joiner
lrm   U+200E (8206) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW RFC 2070 left-to-right mark
rlm   U+200F (8207) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW RFC 2070 right-to-left mark
ndash U+2013 (8211) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub en dash
mdash U+2014 (8212) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub em dash
lsquo U+2018 (8216) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum left single quotation mark
rsquo U+2019 (8217) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum right single quotation mark
sbquo U+201A (8218) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW single low-9 quotation mark
ldquo U+201C (8220) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum left double quotation mark
rdquo U+201D (8221) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOnum right double quotation mark
bdquo U+201E (8222) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW double low-9 quotation mark
dagger U+2020 (8224) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub dagger, obelisk
Dagger U+2021 (8225) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub double dagger, double obelisk
bull U+2022 (8226) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOpub bullet (black small circle)[f]
hellip U+2026 (8230) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub horizontal ellipsis (three dot leader)
permil U+2030 (8240) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISOtech per mille sign
prime U+2032 (8242) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech prime (minutes, feet)
Prime U+2033 (8243) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech double prime (seconds, inches)
lsaquo U+2039 (8249) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISO proposed single left-pointing angle quotation mark[g]
rsaquo U+203A (8250) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial ISO proposed single right-pointing angle quotation mark[g]
oline U+203E (8254) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW overline (spacing overscore)
frasl U+2044 (8260) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW fraction slash (solidus)
euro U+20AC (8364) HTML 4.0 HTMLspecial NEW euro sign
image U+2111 (8465) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamso black-letter capital I (imaginary part)
weierp U+2118 (8472) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamso script capital P (power set, Weierstrass p)
real U+211C (8476) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamso black-letter capital R (real part symbol)
trade U+2122 (8482) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum trademark symbol
alefsym U+2135 (8501) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW alef symbol (first transfinite cardinal)[h]
larr U+2190 (8592) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum leftwards arrow
uarr U+2191 (8593) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum upwards arrow
rarr U+2192 (8594) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum rightwards arrow
darr U+2193 (8595) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum downwards arrow
harr U+2194 (8596) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsa left right arrow
crarr U+21B5 (8629) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol NEW downwards arrow with corner leftwards (carriage return)
lArr U+21D0 (8656) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech leftwards double arrow[i]
uArr U+21D1 (8657) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsa upwards double arrow
rArr U+21D2 (8658) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOnum rightwards double arrow[j]
dArr U+21D3 (8659) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsa downwards double arrow
hArr U+21D4 (8660) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsa left right double arrow
forall U+2200 (8704) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech for all
part U+2202 (8706) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech partial differential
exist U+2203 (8707) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech there exists
empty U+2205 (8709) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamso empty set (null set); see also U+8960, ⌀
nabla U+2207 (8711) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech del or nabla (vector differential operator)
isin U+2208 (8712) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech element of
notin U+2209 (8713) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech not an element of
ni U+220B (8715) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech contains as member
prod U+220F (8719) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsb n-ary product (product sign)[k]
sum U+2211 (8721) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsb n-ary summation[l]
minus U+2212 (8722) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech minus sign
lowast U+2217 (8727) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech asterisk operator
radic U+221A (8730) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech square root (radical sign)
prop U+221D (8733) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech proportional to
infin U+221E (8734) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech infinity
ang U+2220 (8736) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamso angle
and U+2227 (8743) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech logical and (wedge)
or U+2228 (8744) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech logical or (vee)
cap U+2229 (8745) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech intersection (cap)
cup U+222A (8746) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech union (cup)
int U+222B (8747) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech integral
there4 U+2234 (8756) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech therefore sign
sim U+223C (8764) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech tilde operator (varies with, similar to)[m]
cong U+2245 (8773) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech congruent to
asymp U+2248 (8776) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsr almost equal to (asymptotic to)
ne U+2260 (8800) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech not equal to
equiv U+2261 (8801) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech identical to; sometimes used for 'equivalent to'
le U+2264 (8804) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech less-than or equal to
ge U+2265 (8805) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech greater-than or equal to
sub U+2282 (8834) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech subset of
sup U+2283 (8835) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech superset of[n]
nsub U+2284 (8836) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsn not a subset of
sube U+2286 (8838) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech subset of or equal to
supe U+2287 (8839) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech superset of or equal to
oplus U+2295 (8853) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsb circled plus (direct sum)
otimes U+2297 (8855) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsb circled times (vector product)
perp U+22A5 (8869) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech up tack (orthogonal to, perpendicular)[o]
sdot U+22C5 (8901) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsb dot operator[p]
lceil U+2308 (8968) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsc left ceiling (APL upstile)
rceil U+2309 (8969) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsc right ceiling
lfloor U+230A (8970) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsc left floor (APL downstile)
rfloor U+230B (8971) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOamsc right floor
lang U+2329 (9001) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech left-pointing angle bracket (bra)[q]
rang U+232A (9002) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOtech right-pointing angle bracket (ket)[r]
loz U+25CA (9674) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub lozenge
spades U+2660 (9824) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub black spade suit[f]
clubs U+2663 (9827) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub black club suit (shamrock)[f]
hearts U+2665 (9829) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub black heart suit (valentine)[f]
diams U+2666 (9830) HTML 4.0 HTMLsymbol ISOpub black diamond suit[f]

Notes:

  1. DTD: the full public DTD name (where the character entity name is defined) is actually mapped from one of the following three defined named entities:
    • HTMLlat1 maps to:
    • HTMLsymbol maps to:
    • HTMLspecial maps to:
  2. Old ISO subset: these are old (documented) character subsets used in legacy encodings before the unification within ISO 10646.
  3. Description: the standard ISO 10646 and Unicode character name is displayed first for each character, with non-standard but legacy synonyms shown in italics between parentheses after an equal sign.
  4. a b c d spaces: a blue background is used to display each space's width.
  5. a b ligature: this is a standard misnomer as this is a separate character in some languages.
  6. a b c d e black: here it seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow.
  7. a b ISO proposed: these characters have been standardized in ISO 10646 after the release of HTML 4.0.
  8. alefsym: 'alef symbol' is not the same as U+05D0 'Hebrew letter alef', although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters.
  9. lArr: ISO 10646 does not say that 'leftwards double arrow' is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow, but also does not have any other character for that function. So lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests.
  10. rArr: ISO 10646 does not say that 'rightwards double arrow' is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function, so rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests.
  11. prod: 'n-ary product' is not the same character as U+03A0 'Greek capital letter Pi' though the same glyph might be used for both.
  12. sum: 'n-ary summation' is not the same character as U+03A3 'Greek capital letter Sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both.
  13. sim: 'tilde operator' is not the same character as U+007E 'tilde', although the same glyph might be used to represent both.
  14. sup: note that nsup, U+2283 'not a superset of', is not covered by the Symbol font encoding and is not included. Should it be, for symmetry? It is in the ISOamsn subset.
  15. perp: Unicode only defines U+22A5 as the "up tack". The Unicode symbol for "perpendicular" is U+27C2. The two symbols look similar, but are separate in Unicode. However, HTML uses U+22A5 as its "perpendicular" symbol. This is a discrepancy between HTML and Unicode. As well, the U+22A4 character (the "down tack" symbol) rendered in a browser such as Firefox 3.6 can match the font of either "up tack" or "perpendicular", but not both, depending on whether a fixed-width or a proportional font is used. When viewed in Firefox 3.6, the symbols rendered in the order U+22A5, U+22A4, U+27C2 in a proportional font: ⊥ ⊤ ⟂ and a fixed width one: ⊥ ⊤ ⟂, shows that the "down tack" has a similar look to U+22A5 (HTML's "perpendicular") in the first case but matches U+27C2 in the second. This exemplifies the difficulties of the semiotics involved in interpreting glyphs, symbols and characters generally.
  16. sdot: 'dot operator' is not the same character as U+00B7 'middle dot'.
  17. lang: U+2329 'left-pointing angle bracket' is not the same character as U+003C 'less than', U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark', U+27E8 'mathematical left angle bracket', or U+3008 'left angle bracket'. In HTML 5.0, lang has been remapped to U+27E8 'mathematical left angle bracket', as U+2329 'left-pointing angle bracket' has been marked deprecated in Unicode (Unicode.org - Proposal for Additional Deprecated Characters).
  18. rang: U+232A 'right-pointing angle bracket' is not the same character as U+003E 'greater than', U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark', U+27E9 'mathematical right angle bracket', or U+3009 'right angle bracket'. In HTML 5.0, rang has been remapped to U+27E9 'mathematical right angle bracket', as U+232A 'right-pointing angle bracket' has been marked deprecated in Unicode (Unicode.org - Proposal for Additional Deprecated Characters).

Entities representing special characters in XHTML[editar]

The XHTML DTDs explicitly declare 253 entities (including the 5 predefined entities of XML 1.0) whose expansion is a single character, which can therefore be informally referred to as "character entities". These (with the exception of the &apos; entity) have the same names and represent the same characters as the 252 character entities in HTML. Also, by virtue of being XML, XHTML documents may reference the predefined &apos; entity, which is not one of the 252 character entities in HTML. Additional entities of any size may be defined on a per-document basis. However, the usability of entity references in XHTML is affected by how the document is being processed:

  • If the document is read by a conforming HTML processor, then only the 252 HTML character entities can safely be used. The use of &apos; or custom entity references may not be supported and may produce unpredictable results.
  • If the document is read by an XML parser that does not or cannot read external entities, then only the five built-in XML character entities (see above) can safely be used, although other entities may be used if they are declared in the internal DTD subset.
  • If the document is read by an XML parser that does read external entities, then the five built-in XML character entities can safely be used. The other 248 HTML character entities can be used as long as the XHTML DTD is accessible to the parser at the time the document is read. Other entities may also be used if they are declared in the internal DTD subset.

Because of the special &apos; case mentioned above, only &quot;, &amp;, &lt;, and &gt; will work in all processing situations.

Referencias[editar]

Enlaces externos[editar]