Movimiento de liberación nacional armenio
El Movimiento de liberación nacional armenio o Movimiento revolucionario armenio antes del establecieminto de la Primera República Armenia fue el esfuerzo armenio para restablecer un Estado Armenio en la histórica patria armenia del este de Asia Menor y el Transcáucaso. El movimiento nacional armenio se desarrolló después del movimiento griego, sin embargo, los factores los factores que contribuyeron a la emersión del nacionalismo armenio hicieron a este movimiento mucho más parecido al de los griegos que esos otros movimientos étnicos. El movimiento anional de liberación de los pueblos de los Balcanes (véase: national awakenings in Balkans) y el envolvimiento inmediato de los poderes europeos en el problema oriental y en el problema armenio tuvo un efecto importante el hasta ahora suprimido movimiento nacional entre los armenios y el Imperio otomano, en el desarrollo de la ideología de liberación nacional y la transformación de la identidad nacional armenia.
El movimiento nacional armeno, además de sus héroes individuales (véase: héroes nacionales),fue una actividad organizada representada por tres partidos del pueblo armenio, el Partido socialdemócrata Hunchakian, Armenakan y la Federación Revolucionaria Armenia, de los cuales FRA fue el mayor y el más influyente de entre los tres.
- 1 National awakening (1800s-1914)
- 1.1 Ottoman Empire
- 1.2 Russian Empire
- 1.3 Persian Empire
- 1.4 Europe
- 2 World War One
- 3 First Republic
- 4 Soviet Armenia
- 5 1980, Renewal and forward
- 6 Véase también
- 7 Notas
- 8 Referencias
National awakening (1800s-1914)[editar · editar código]
During the 19th century, along with the other national awakening movements, Armenian thinkers/writers who promote the use of new concepts developed national cultural products. The first concepts developed by the thinkers/writers who studied in the Western Europe under the legacy of the French Revolution of 1789. They were highly educated (Doctors, educators, stc) which had democratic-liberal ideology and the concept of the rights of man.
The second wave come with the Russian revolutionary though. Armenian revolutionary movement, at the end of 19th century, was based on a socialist ideology, specifically with its Marxist variant, see Armenian Revolutionary Federation.  There was only one problem, the materialism and class struggle did not directly apply to the realities (Socioeconomics) of Ottoman Empire (so Ottoman Armenians) as much as the Armenians in the Russian Empire.
The Armenians supported the Young Turk Revolution, as it was just natural that these concepts (tendencies, attitudes and feelings) were present in varying proportions among Armenians with the turn of 20th century ARF, in the early 20th century was socialists, and marxist which can be seen from the party's first program After the revolution, the Ottoman Empire in the second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) was struggling to keep its territories and promoting the Ottomanism among its citizens. During the same time the Armenian Revolutionary Federation was moving out of this context and developing, what was just a normal extension of its national freedom concept, the concept of the "Independent Armenian State". With this national transformation Armenian Revolutionary Federation's activities become a national cause.
Ottoman Empire[editar · editar código]
The movement organized the Armenian Rebellions under the Ottoman Empire managed to establish the First Armenian Republic during the World War I, the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire had oscillated between the ideas of republic and autonomous region in the empire during the history of Ottoman democracy with organizations like Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and Armenakan.
Seeds of the movement[editar · editar código]
Enlightenment among Armenians, sometimes called as renaissance of the Armenian people, came from two sources; First one was the Armenian monks belonging to the order of Mekhitar. Mekhitar emphasized, the teaching of Armenian history and language. The conditions of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire improved due to tanzimat reforms and better transport. With this improvement the second branch originated through the Protestant missionaries which opened elementary education, colleges and other institutions of learning through out. As Armenian began to communicate with each other through newspapers and books learn about their past history and compare it with their present situation, their horizons expanded beyond their immediate surroundings. This was part of an evolution in Armenian political consciousness from purely cultural romanticism to a realism, which called for action. The action come as Armenians appealed frequently for assistance against injustices perpetuated by feudal figures (Kurds) and corrupt officials. At the beginning the relations were positive but in the 1860s, having crushed Kurdish resistance, no longer needed Armenian support in this region, Ottoman Empire become non-responsive to Armenian needs.
Organizing into groups[editar · editar código]
Armenian General Benevolent Union was founded in Constantinople.
Armenakan' was established in Van by Mëkërtich Portukalian, who later from Marseilles kept in touch with the leaders, and published a journal of political and social enlightenment, "The Armenia". The Armenians of Van continued to develop the political principles behind Armenian nationalism, in a secrecy. The party's aim soon become to 'win for the Armenians the right to rule over themselves, through revolution'. Their view on how to liberate Armenia from the Ottoman Empire was through armed struggle.
Armenian "National Constitution", 1863[editar · editar código]
Hatt-ı Hümayun's (1856) organization to bring equality among millets also brought a discontent to the Armenian Patriarchate. Before the Hatt-ı Hümayun Armenian Patriarch was not only the spiritual leader of the community, but its secular leader (all Armenians, Armenian nation) as well. The Patriarch could at will dismiss the Bishops and his jurisdiction extended to 50 regions. The Armenians wanted to abolish oppression by the nobility, by drawing up a new `National Regulation'. "Code of Regulations" (1860)was drafted by the Armenian intelligentsia (Dr. Nahabed Rusinian, Dr. Sevichen, Nigoghos Balian, Krikor Odian and Krikor Margosian), which define the powers of Patriarch. Finally the Council accepted the draft regulation on May 24,1860, and presented it to the Babiali. The Babiali ratified it with some minor changes, with a firman on March 17,1863, and made it effective. The Armenian National Constitution (Ottoman Turkish:"Nizâmnâme-i Millet-i Ermeniyân") was Ottoman Empire approved form of the "Code of Regulations" composed of 150 articles drafted by the "Armenian intelligentsia", which defined the powers of Patriarch (position in Ottoman Millet) and newly formed "Armenian National Assembly". Armenian Patriarch began to share his powers with the Armenian National Assembly and limited by the Armenian National Constitution, perceived the changes as erosion of its community.
The `Armenian National Regulation' was defined the condition of Armenians within the state, but also it had regulations for concerning the authority of the Patriarch. Armenian National Regulation was the declaration of the sharing of authority over the Armenians between the Patriarch and the Armenian National Assembly. The constitution of Armenian National Assembly received as a milestone to be a modern nation.
Congress of Berlin, 1878[editar · editar código]
The Armenian National Assembly and Patriarch Nerses II of Constantinople sent Catholicos Mgrdich Khrimian to Berlin to present the case for the Armenians. In his famous patriotic speech “The Paper Ladle,”; he advised Armenians to take the National awakening of Bulgaria as a model as the hopes of the Armenian people for self-determination were ignored by the European community of nations.
Armenian reform package, 1914[editar · editar código]
Reform package of 1914 was appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues in the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan wars created an opportunity for revival of new design in order to improve the Ottoman Armenians. The French-Britain-Italy was anxious to limit the German influence, Russian government encouraged the Catholicos of Armenia to appeal through the viceroy of the caucuses to the imperial government (Ottoman Empire) for an intervention in favor of reforms in the vilayets that Armenians live. This project was prepared by the A. Mandelstam (Dragoman, Russian Embassy in Istanbul), and Armenian representatives. It was introduced and discussed in Constantinople in the meeting of the ambassadors of French-Britain-Italy. The project suggested the formation of one province from six vilayets (Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakir, Kharput and Sivas) under either an Ottoman Christian or a European governor general. Governor general should be appointed by the powers for the next five years. Germany opposed the project and succeeded in pressuring to remodel it. The reform package was signed on February 1914, between Ottoman Empire and Russia. The package developed two provinces by these six vilayets and assigning European inspector general to overlook at the affairs.
Russian Empire[editar · editar código]
Seeds of the movement[editar · editar código]
The Nersesian College in Tiflis (1823) and Lazarian College (1816) in the Moscow-Lazarevski Institute was the foremost educational institutions where national awareness originated. Among the pioneers Mikayel Nalbantian, Khachadour Abovian and Stepan Nazarian are counted which they championed the cause of Armenians, and fought for its universal adoption.
Organizing into groups[editar · editar código]
Armenian Revolutionary Federation was founded in Tiflis. Its members armed themselves into fedayee groups to defend Armenian villages and to gain an eventual independence, it being the only solution to save the people from Ottoman oppression and massacres. The ARF worked to create a "free, independent and unified" Armenia.
Clamp down on activities, 1903[editar · editar código]
Between 1903-1905 by the special order of Russian Tsar all the Armenian schools were closed in South Caucasus and Armenian church property confiscated. Mkrtich Khrimian waged struggle against Tsar. The ARF acquired significant strength and sympathy among Russian Armenians from the day it was established. Mainly because of the ARF's orientation towards the Ottoman Empire, the party enjoyed the support of the central Russian administration, as tsarist and ARF foreign policy had the same alignment until 1903. In June 12 1903, the tsarists passed an edict to bring all Armenian Church property under imperial control. This was faced by strong ARF opposition, because it perceived the tsarist edict as a threat to the Armenian national existence. As a result, the ARF leadership decided to actively defend Armenian churches. This caused many casualties to ARF members in 1905.
Persian Empire[editar · editar código]
Europe[editar · editar código]
The significant European movements begin with the Armenian settlements in Francia and in the U.S. as early as in the 1890s. The previous migrations are minor or not statistically significant. Various political parties and benevolent unions, such as branches for the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or Dashnaktsutiun), the Social-Democrat Henchagian party (Hunchak), and the Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU), were established wherever there was a considerable number of Armenians.
Organizing into groups[editar · editar código]
It was founded by a group of college students in Geneva, Switzerland, with the goal to gain Armenia's independence from the Ottoman Empire. Its name, taken from its newspaper Hunchak, means "Bell" in English, and is taken by party members to represent "awakening, enlightenment, and freedom."
Armenian Patriotic Society of Europe's goal was to Armenian Diaspora should help those in their native land, both financially and by politically about their oppressed condition. Its headquarters were in Chesilton Road, Fulham.
World War One[editar · editar código]
First Republic[editar · editar código]
THe first national republic was achieved by the Armenians under the Russian control which devised a national congress at October of 1917. The convention in Tiflis was concluded in September of 1917 with delegates from former Romanov realm (203), which 103 belonged to the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. When the first Republic of Armenia (Democratic Republic of Armenia) was proclaimed in 1918, the ARF became the ruling party.
However, despite their tight grip on power (Drastamat Kanayan (Ministry of Defense) and Aram Manougian (Ministry of Interior)), the ARF was unable to stop the impending Communist invasion from the north, which culminated with a Soviet takeover in 1920. The ARF was banned, its leaders exiled and many of its members dispersed to other parts of the world.
Soviet Armenia[editar · editar código]
Soviet period cultivated consolidation of Armenian culture and identity through promotion of the Armenian language. Also a number of cultural institutions were established. However, the development of the national identity over ethnic definition was suppressed. Armenian Apostolic church was also lost some grounds (not promoted).
1980, Renewal and forward[editar · editar código]
Beginning with the glasnost the unhappiness of the populations began to be expressed as national identity and liberation desires. 1988 earthquake was a turning point for the national identity development. -->
1991, independencia[editar · editar código]
La maduración de la identidad nacional ocurrió con la independencia de Armenia.
Véase también[editar · editar código]
- Lista de héroes nacionales armenios
- Rebeliones armenias
- Federación Revolucionaria Armenia
- Partido Socialdemócrata Hunchakian
Notas[editar · editar código]
- Arman J. Kirakossian, British Diplomacy and the Armenian Question, from the 1830s to 1914, ISBN 1-884630-07-3
Referencias[editar · editar código]
- The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics By Richard G. Hovannisian, p. 129
- Diplomacia británica y el Problema Armenio: desde 1830 hasta 1914 Por Arman J. Kirakossian página 58
- Libaridian, Gerard J. (2004). Modern Armenia: People, Nation, State. Transaction Publishers. pp. p. 106. ISBN 0-7658-0205-8.
- «Armenian Revolutionary Federation Founded, Armenian history timeline». Consultado el 25-12-2006.
- Der Minassian, Anahide, "Nationalisme et socialisme dans le Mouvement Revolutionnaire Armenien", in "LA QUESTION ARMENIENNE", Paris, 1983, pp. 73-111.
- Documents for the history of the ARF, II, 2nd Edition, Beirut, 1985, pp. 11-14
- Dasnabedian, Hratch, "The ideological creed" and "The evolution of objectives" in "A BALANCE-SHEET OF THE NINETY YEARS", Beirut, 1985, pp. 73-103
- Edmund Herzig "Armenians Past And Present In The Making Of National Identity A Handbook" page.76
- Edmund Herzig "Armenians Past And Present In The Making Of National Identity A Handbook" page.75
- Dadian (Migirditch), "La society armenienne contemporaine" revue des deus Mondes, June 1867. pp803-827
- Richard G. (EDT) Hovannisian "The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times" page 198
- (Haig Ajemian, Hayotz Hayrig, page 511-3; [translated by Fr. Vazken Movsesian]
- Kirakosian, J. S., ed. Hayastane michazkayin divanakitut'yan ew sovetakan artakin kaghakakanut'yan pastateghterum, 1828-1923 (Armenia in the documents of international diplomacy and Soviet foreign policy, 1828-1923). Erevan, 1972. p.149-358
- Note the picture "ARF Fedayees" that shows fedayees operating under the ARF flag that read "Liberty or Death"
- Geifman, Anna. Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917. pp. p. 21-22. ISBN 0-691-02549-5.