Filipo el Árabe y el Cristianismo

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Un busto de Filipo el Árabe en el Museo Hermitage.

Filipo el Árabe fue uno de los pocos emperadores romanos del siglo III que le tuvo simpatía a los cristianos,[1] aunque su relación con el Cristianismo es una temática oscura y polémica. Filipo nació en Auranitis, un distrito árabe al este del Mar de Galilea. Los centros urbanos y Helénicos de la región fueron cristianizados en los primeros años del siglo III a través de los principales centros cristianos en Bosra y Edessa; hay poca evidencia de la presencia cristiana en los pueblos pequeños de la región en este período, como en el lugar de nacimiento de Filipo en Shahba.[2] Filipo sirvió como prefecto del pretorio, comandante de la Guardia Pretoriana, a partir del año 242; posteriormente, fue nombrado emperador en el año 244. En el año 249, después de una breve guerra civil, murió a manos de su sucesor, Decio.

A finales del siglo III y durante el IV, algunos clérigos sostuvieron que Filipo había sido el primer emperador cristiano; así fue descrito en la Crónica de Jerónimo que era muy conocida durante la Edad Media[3] y en el muy popular Historia Adversus Paganos de Orosio (la Historia Contra los Paganos).[4] La mayoría de los expertos sostienen que éstos y otros informes derivan finalmente de Historia Ecclesiastica (la Historia Eclesiástica) de Eusebio de Cesarea.[5]

La más importante sección de la Historia de Eusebio sobre las creencias religiosas de Filipo describe la visita del emperador a una Iglesia en Sábado Santo cuando se le negó la entrada por parte del obispo hasta que éste confesase sus pecados.

Fuentes[editar]

Referencias[editar]

  1. Shahîd, Rome and the Arabs, 67-68.
  2. Perry Anderson, Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism (London: NLB, 1974), 87–88; Bowersock, Roman Arabia, 126; cf. Shahîd, Rome and the Arabs, 72.
  3. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 111–14.
  4. Shahîd, Rome and the Arabs, 83; Lieu and Montserrat, 40, 42, 48, 61 n. 89.
  5. E.g., Gregg, 43; Pohlsander, "Philip the Arab and Christianity", 466; E. Stein apud Shahîd, Rome and the Arabs, 69.

Bibliografía[editar]

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