Concepto de dios en el budismo

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Buda Gautama niega que el universo haya sido comenzado mediante el acto de una deidad creadora,[1] [2] negando el apoyo a cualquier punto de vista sobre la creación[3] y estableciendo que las preguntas sobre el origen del mundo no tienen valor alguno.[4] [5] La no adherencia[6] a la noción de una deidad creadora omnipotente o a una "primera causa" (primum movens) es vista como una distinción clave entre el Budismo y otras religiones y filosofías.

Además, el budismo enfatiza el sistema de relaciones causales subyacentes al universo (Pratītyasamutpāda) que constituyen el orden natural (dharma), no habiendo dependencia de fenómenos ni realidades sobrenaturales que expliquen el comportamiento de la materia. De acuerdo con la doctrina de buda, un ser humano puede estudiar la Naturaleza (dhamma vicaya) para obtener sabiduría a nivel personal (Prajñā) con respecto a la naturaleza de las (dharma). En el budismo el único objetivo de la práctica espiritual es el alivio completo del sufrimiento (Duḥkha) provocado por el ciclo de reencarnaciones (samsara),[7] [8] alivio que se conoce como nirvana.

A mayores, muchos maestros enseñan a estudiantes que comienzan con la meditación budista que la noción de divinidad no es incompatible con el budismo,[9] y al menos un estudioso budista ha indicado que describir el budismo como no-teísta puede ser demasiado simplificante;,[10] aunque muchas creencias teístas tradicionales consideran que aplicar el concepto teísta al budismo representa un obstáculo para el logro del nirvana,[11] la meta más alta de la práctica budista.[12]

A pesar de este aparente no-teísmo, los budistas consideran importante la veneración a personas nobles,[13] [14] aunque las dos mayores tradiciones o escuelas de budismo difieren en estas actitudes "reverenciales": mientras la escuela de budismo theravada ven a Buda como un ser humano que alcanzó el nirvana o budeidad a través de esfuerzos humanos,[15] algunos budistas de la escuela de budismo Mahāyāna (mayoritaria) le consideran la personificación de un personaje nacido para el beneficio de los demás (Dharmakaya).[16] De hecho, algunos budistas mahāyāna rinden culto al Bodhisattva, Avalokiteshvara,[17] y esperan poder encarnarse en él.[18]

Muchos budistas aceptan la existencia de seres en reinos superiores (ver Cosmología budista), conocidos como devas, pero, éstos, al igual que los seres humanos sufren el samsara o ciclo de reencarnaciones,[19] y no son necesariamente más sabios que nosotros. De hecho muchas veces Buda Gautama está representado como maestro o profesor de estos dioses[20] y es superior a ellos.[21] [22]

Algunas ramas del budismo expresan una creencia filosófica en un Buda eterno como una representación de iluminación y un símbolo omnipresente del universo.[23]

Véase también[editar]

Referencias[editar]

  1. Thera, Nyanaponika. «Buddhism and the God-idea». The Vision of the Dhamma. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. «In Buddhist literature, the belief in a creator god (issara-nimmana-vada) is frequently mentioned and rejected, along with other causes wrongly adduced to explain the origin of the world; as, for instance, world-soul, time, nature, etc. God-belief, however, is placed in the same category as those morally destructive wrong views which deny the kammic results of action, assume a fortuitous origin of man and nature, or teach absolute determinism. These views are said to be altogether pernicious, having definite bad results due to their effect on ethical conduct.».
  2. Approaching the Dhamma: Buddhist Texts and Practices in South and Southeast Asia by Anne M. Blackburn (editor), Jeffrey Samuels (editor). Pariyatti Publishing: 2003 ISBN 1-928706-19-3 pg 129
  3. Bhikku Bodhi (2007). «III.1, III.2, III.5». En Access To Insight. The All Embracing Net of Views: Brahmajala Sutta. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. 
  4. Thanissaro Bhikku (1997). «Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable» (en translated from pali into english). AN 4.77. Access To Insight. «Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.».
  5. Thanissaro Bhikku (1998). «Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta: The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya» (en translated from pali into english). Access To Insight. «It's just as if a man were wounded with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. His friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives would provide him with a surgeon, and the man would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know whether the man who wounded me was a noble warrior, a priest, a merchant, or a worker.' He would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know the given name & clan name of the man who wounded me... until I know whether he was tall, medium, or short... The man would die and those things would still remain unknown to him. In the same way, if anyone were to say, 'I won't live the holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not declare to me that 'The cosmos is eternal,'... or that 'After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,' the man would die and those things would still remain undeclared by the Tathagata.».
  6. Bhikku, Thanissaro (1997). Tittha Sutta: Sectarians (en translated from Pali). «Then in that case, a person is a killer of living beings because of a supreme being's act of creation... When one falls back on lack of cause and lack of condition as being essential, monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], 'This should be done. This shouldn't be done.' When one can't pin down as a truth or reality what should & shouldn't be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a contemplative.» 
  7. Thanissaro Bhikku (2004). «Alagaddupama Sutta: The Water-Snake Simile» (en translated from pali into english). Access To Insight. «Both formerly and now, monks, I declare only stress and the cessation of stress.».
  8. Thanissaro Bhikku (2004). «Anuradha Sutta: To Anuradha» (en translated from pali into english). Access To Insight. «Both formerly & now, it is only stress that I describe, and the cessation of stress.».
  9. Dorothy Figen (1988). «Is Buddhism a Religion?». Beginning Insight Meditation and other essays. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. pp. Bodhi Leaves. «So to these young Christians I can say, "Believe in Christ if you wish, but remember, Jesus never claimed divinity either." Yes, believe in a unitary God, too, if you wish, but cease your imploring, pleading for personal dispensations, health, wealth, relief from suffering. Study the Eightfold Path. Seek the insights and enlightenment that come through meditative learnings. And find out how to achieve for yourself what prayer and solicitation of forces beyond you are unable to accomplish.» 
  10. Dr. B. Alan Wallace, 'Is Buddhism Really Non-Theistic?' Lecture given at the National Conference of the American Academy of Religion, Boston, Mass., Nov. 1999, p. 8.
  11. Nyanaponika Thera (1994). «Buddhism and the God-idea». The Vision of the Dhamma (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society). «Although belief in God does not exclude a favorable rebirth, it is a variety of eternalism, a false affirmation of permanence rooted in the craving for existence, and as such an obstacle to final deliverance.» 
  12. Mahasi Sayadaw,Thoughts on the Dhamma, The Wheel Publication No. 298/300, Kandy BPS, 1983, "...when Buddha-dhamma is being disseminated, there should be only one basis of teaching relating to the Middle Way or the Eightfold Path: the practice of morality, concentration, and acquisition of profound knowledge, and the Four Noble Truths."
  13. Buddhists consider an enlightened person, the Dhamma and the community of monks as noble. See Three Jewels.
  14. Thera, Nyanaponika (1994). Devotion in Buddhism. Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka. «It would be a mistake, however, to conclude that the Buddha disparaged a reverential and devotional attitude of mind when it is the natural outflow of a true understanding and a deep admiration of what is great and noble.» 
  15. Bhikku, Thanissaro. «The Meaning of the Buddha's Awakening». Access to Insight. Consultado el 5 de junio de 2010.
  16. Donald K. Swearer (2004). Becoming the Buddha: The Ritual of Image Consecration in Thailand. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11435-4. 
  17. Hong, Xiong (1997). Hymn to Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. Taipei: Vastplain. ISBN 978-957-9460-89-7. 
  18. Lama Thubten Yeshe; Geshe Lhundub Sopa (junio de 2003). Robina Courtin, ed. Becoming the Compassion Buddha: Tantric Mahamudra for Everyday Life. Wisdom Publications. pp. 89–110. ISBN 978-0-86171-343-1. 
  19. John T Bullitt (2005). «The Thirty-one planes of Existence». Access To Insight. Consultado el 26 de mayo de 2010. «The suttas describe thirty-one distinct "planes" or "realms" of existence into which beings can be reborn during this long wandering through samsara. These range from the extraordinarily dark, grim, and painful hell realms to the most sublime, refined, and exquisitely blissful heaven realms. Existence in every realm is impermanent; in Buddhist cosmology there is no eternal heaven or hell. Beings are born into a particular realm according to both their past kamma and their kamma at the moment of death. When the kammic force that propelled them to that realm is finally exhausted, they pass away, taking rebirth once again elsewhere according to their kamma. And so the wearisome cycle continues.».
  20. Susan Elbaum Jootla (1997). «II. The Buddha Teaches Deities». En Access To Insight. Teacher of the Devas. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. «Many people worship Maha Brahma as the supreme and eternal creator God, but for the Buddha he is merely a powerful deity still caught within the cycle of repeated existence. In point of fact, "Maha Brahma" is a role or office filled by different individuals at different periods." "His proof included the fact that "many thousands of deities have gone for refuge for life to the recluse Gotama" (MN 95.9). Devas, like humans, develop faith in the Buddha by practicing his teachings." "A second deva concerned with liberation spoke a verse which is partly praise of the Buddha and partly a request for teaching. Using various similes from the animal world, this god showed his admiration and reverence for the Exalted One.", "A discourse called Sakka's Questions (DN 21) took place after he had been a serious disciple of the Buddha for some time. The sutta records a long audience he had with the Blessed One which culminated in his attainment of stream-entry. Their conversation is an excellent example of the Buddha as "teacher of devas," and shows all beings how to work for Nibbana.» 
  21. Bhikku, Thanissaro (1997). Kevaddha Sutta. Access To Insight. «When this was said, the Great Brahma said to the monk, 'I, monk, am Brahma, the Great Brahma, the Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, All-Powerful, the Sovereign Lord, the Maker, Creator, Chief, Appointer and Ruler, Father of All That Have Been and Shall Be... That is why I did not say in their presence that I, too, don't know where the four great elements... cease without remainder. So you have acted wrongly, acted incorrectly, in bypassing the Blessed One in search of an answer to this question elsewhere. Go right back to the Blessed One and, on arrival, ask him this question. However he answers it, you should take it to heart.» 
  22. http://www.himalayanart.org/pages/Visual_Dharma/yidams.html
  23. http://hhdl.dharmakara.net/hhdlquotes22.html

Bibliografía en inglés[editar]

  • Fozdar, Jamshed K. (1995) [1973]. The God of Buddha. Ariccia (RM), Italy: Casa Editrice Bahá'í Srl. ISBN 88-7214-031-5. OL 24300363M. 
  • Amit Goswami, The Self-Aware Universe, Tarcher, 1995 reprint, softcover, ISBN 0-87477-798-4
  • Hodge, Stephen (tr.) (2003). The Maha-Vairocana-Abhisambodhi Tantra. London, UK: Routledge Curzon. 
  • Norbu, C.; A. Clemente (1999). The Supreme Source. New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. 
  • Sokei-an, 1998, Zen Pivots, Weatherhill, New York, Tokyo.
  • Wallis, Glenn, The Buddha Counsels a Theist: A Reading of the Tevijjasutta (Dighanikaya 13), Religion 38 (2008):54-67.
  • Yamamoto, Kosho (tr.); Dr. Tony Page (ed. and revision) (1999-2000). The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra. London, UK: Nirvana Publications. 

Enlaces externos[editar]