Calabazas, calabacines, zapallos, zapallitos y nombres afines

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Ésta es la etimología, explicación y desambiguación de nombres de calabaza, calabacín, calabacita, zapallo, zapallito, auyama, ahuyama, pipián. Por ahora redirigen aquí: calabaza, calabacita, calabacín, auyama, ahuyama, pipián. Para la biología y cultivo de zapallos/zapallitos (calabazas/calabacines comestibles en España, calabacitas en México, ayotes/pipianes en Centroamérica) ver Zapallos y zapallitos.

El grupo de términos calabaza, calabacín, calabacita, zapallo, zapallito, auyama, ahuyama, ayote, pipián, refieren más o menos a los mismos grupos de cultivares de varias especies y los límites de cada término gozan de una gran variabilidad regional. A continuación se expondrán las definiciones más internacionales de calabaza-calabacín y de zapallo-zapallito, y se expondrán los sub-nombres de uso internacional. Quizás esté interesado directamente en:

Calabaza. Nombre original en español, usado en España para la única que había, Lagenaria siceraria (originalmente calabazza), que se consumía inmadura como un zapallito y madura se extraía la pulpa y se usaba la cáscara, que duraba años, como recipiente. Después del encuentro con América se extendió la definición a Cucurbita y a Crescentia[1] , géneros endémicos de esa región, parece que al extenderlo aplicaron el término a lo que se pudiera utilizar como la original (pulpa tierna y a veces domesticada para comestible, cáscara de recipiente o usos que la necesiten de esa dureza como instrumentos musicales o adornos, abarcando también a las variedades que los españoles no tenían, cuya cáscara fue seleccionada para que fuera menos dura y poder ser cortada con cuchillo de cocina); y que en el mundo oriental extendieron esa palabra a Benincasa hispida, la "calabaza china" o "calabaza blanca", comestible de cáscara resistente que conserva el fruto durante un año. Si se puede consumir inmaduro, el fruto inmaduro listo para consumir es llamado calabacín, pero si está maduro el mismo fruto se llama calabaza, y así es como se sigue utilizando en España y se extendió con diferente éxito a los cultivos de la América hispana englobados por ese término (a veces encontrando el término derivado calabacita como sinónimo del calabacín español).

Pero a veces se llama "calabaza" a traducciones inexactas de otros idiomas, el caso más común es que se llame "calabaza" a la traducción del inglés gourd que tiene una definición más amplia en lo que respecta a los caracteres de la cáscara que la original española calabaza (las gourds pueden tener cáscara de menor dureza, y hasta ser dehiscentes, puede haber gourds parecidas a melones o pepinos, sólo que en general se emplea el término a frutos que no poseen otro nombre más específico, como los pepónides no comestibles), por lo que se puede encontrar como "calabaza de..." a frutos provenientes de regiones no hispanoparlantes, que en inglés fueron llamados gourd y de ahí traducidos al español. La cucurbitácea cultivada Sechium edule (chayote, chuchu, papa del aire), que no tiene características de calabaza (su cáscara es suave y no permite conservación) se puede encontrar como "calabaza espinosa" por traducción del náhuatl y también como "calabacita china" en Perú donde se la conoce de mano de los inmigrantes chinos, donde probablemente en español la llamaron "calabaza" porque es una cucurbitácea (en realidad el fruto de una cucurbitácea es un "pepónide").

Lata de puré de zapallo, cantidad para una tarta.

En Sudamérica perduran para algunos grupos los nombres locales dados por los indígenas, que desplazan en algunas morfologías al nombre español calabaza, en particular el más extendido es zapallo (del quechua sapallu) para los cultivares cuya pulpa es comestible madura, de 4 especies: Cucurbita pepo, C. moschata, C. maxima, y C. argyrosperma [cita 1] , las pulpas mencionadas tienen un sabor parecido y los mismos usos culinarios (como el "puré de zapallo"), y éste el nombre utilizado en el sur de Sudamérica (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, hasta Perú). Análogamente a lo que sucede con el término calabaza, al fruto inmaduro listo para consumir se lo llama zapallito, y el mismo fruto si se lo deja madurar es un zapallo (términos equivalentes a los summer squash incluido summer pumpkin y los winter squash incluido (winter) pumpkin en inglés respectivamente); y hay variedades seleccionadas para zapallito y variedades seleccionadas para zapallo. El uso del término en la región coincide con la región geográfica original de la especie Cucurbita maxima, conocida por la calidad de su pulpa madura, sus cultivos al ser llevados al resto de América hispana pueden ser llamados "zapallo", nombre utilizado de forma mucho más restringida que en el sur de Sudamérica.

En el norte de Sudamérica, perdura el nombre auyama o ahuyama dado por los indígenas a las calabazas comestibles maduras con los usos culinarios del "zapallo", aunque no tienen un correspondiente diminutivo para referirse a los frutos consumidos inmaduros, que son llamados calabacines como en España. En la región, los únicos cultivos nativos de auyama son de la especie Cucurbita moschata. El nombre "auyama" o "ahuyama" se conoce así en Venezuela, Colombia, hasta Cuba y República Dominicana[3] .

Falta. Ayote. Pipián.

En los nombres de los zapallos a veces se pueden encontrar modificadores que hacen referencias a características que le interesan al que lo cultiva:

  • "zapallo de tronco" (o si es un cultivar adaptado a que se consuma inmaduro, que es lo más común, "zapallito de tronco") significa que la planta crece con un tronquito grueso y guías cortas, como un arbusto, mientras que
  • "zapallo de guía" o guiador (o zapallito de guía o guiador) es el que proviene de una planta cuyo hábito es una guía (en general son enredaderas rastreras y trepadoras). El zapallo de guía es la condición ancestral de las 4 especies, y es como siempre se encuentran las poblaciones silvestres, mientras que el tipo tronco o arbustivo fue una mutación que fue muy seleccionada para el cultivo de zapallitos (fruto consumido inmaduro) debido a que se hacen tandas de cosecha cada dos o tres días y en el tronco son más fáciles de localizar y cosechar, el zapallo que se cosecha maduro en cambio en general es de guía aunque en los últimos años aparecieron cultivares de zapallos de tipo tronco. Puede haber morfologías intermedias entre los dos, como puede haber cultivos que se promocionen como "de tronco" siendo ese carácter en realidad no muy fijado en el cultivo, lo que al sembrar da algunas plantas de guía o plantas de tronco con algunas guías largas.

La planta de las 4 especies de zapallo es anual, se siembra en primavera, y se puede encontrar que lo llamen:

  • "zapallo de verano" (por traducción del inglés summer squash) si se cosecha inmaduro (lo cual ocurre durante el verano) por lo que es un sinónimo de zapallito (o calabacín), y similarmente
  • "zapallo de invierno" (por traducción del inglés winter squash) es el zapallo que se cosecha en el otoño cuando ya está maduro (y el pico de su consumo es todo el invierno). Dentro de los zapallos que se consumen maduros, se puede encontrar que hay:
    • "zapallos de guarda" = "zapallos de almacenamiento" = "zapallos del año", que son los que poseen fruto con cáscara lo suficientemente madura como para que sean aptos para almacenarse durante meses (entre 2 meses y un poco más de 1 año, según la variedad), la cáscara no se hunde ni se lastima al intentar hincar la uña, y
    • "zapallos tempranos" = "zapallos para primicia"[4] [cita 2] , que se consumen como un zapallo (es decir en puré de zapallo, etc), y están maduros o casi maduros, pero no sobrellevan un almacenamiento, y se llaman así porque se desarrollan y llegan al mercado antes que los de guarda, en la época de escasez de zapallos de guarda, al hincar la uña se lastiman y la pulpa tiene poco sabor.

En cada país pueden llamar zapallo criollo o zapallo tradicional a las landraces (poblaciones tradicionales) locales, es decir que por continuo cultivo durante muchas generaciones son las mejor adaptadas a las condiciones ambientales locales, así los que un argentino considera zapallos criollos o tradicionales no son los mismos que un uruguayo llama zapallos criollos o tradicionales. También pueden ser llamadas variedades de campo en contraposición a los cultivares "comerciales" rentables para el horticultor y cultivados para el circuito comercial.

Nombres de las variedades de calabazas y zapallos[editar]

A continuación se expondrán los nombres con que se conocen a las variedades con nombre internacional de calabazas y zapallos.

Si se desea obtener el nombre de un cultivo desconocido, la identificación de la especie es una buena ayuda para descartar nombres. El cuadro para identificar la especie se encuentra en Zapallos y zapallitos#Especies

Puede chequearse Clasificación de plantas cultivadas para estudiar la diferencia entre un cultivar, un grupo de cultivares (los dos regidos por el Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas, útil para el comercio de cultivos), una landrace o variedad tradicional, un market type o grupo horticultural, y un nombre "botánico" (regido por el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Botánica).

Nombres de cultivos y otras poblaciones[editar]

A diferencia de lo que sucede con el Código de Botánica, el Código de Plantas Cultivadas exhorta a que se realicen clasificaciones diferentes con base en diferentes criterios de utilidad[cita 3] , para representarlas a todas, se dividieron todos los cultivos en las unidades más pequeñas posibles para las que ningún autor de una clasificación científica o de un nombre estuviera en desacuerdo en que había que seguir dividiendo, unidades que por lo tanto resultaron muy homogéneas internamente, y se aplicaron los nombres científicos para cada una de esas unidades, aclarando cuáles estaban agrupadas en unidades más amplias para algún autor. También para cada unidad se menciona cuáles son los nombres vulgares más comunes con los que se corresponde, si los hay. Los nombres no suficientemente estudiados, que no queda claro aún a qué se aplican, siguen a continuación, además de los nombres de las poblaciones silvestres, y los nombres de posibles traducciones de otros idiomas.

La primera división en tablas es la división entre zapallos/zapallitos/calabazas ornamentales, las últimas llamadas así porque su finalidad primaria es la utilización de su cáscara lignificada con fines no alimenticios. La elección se debió a que en las lenguas vernáculas[cita 4] como en las estadísticas de producción[cita 5] [cita 6] [cita 7] la primera división de estos grupos no es en especies sino en 3 grupos[cita 8] : los dos grupos comestibles[cita 1] : "zapallos" (=calabazas comestibles maduras en España y México) y "zapallitos" (=calabacines en España), y el grupo de las "calabazas para fines no alimenticios" (normalmente el "mate" o "calabaza del peregrino"), esta división es la que emerge más fácilmente en las estadísticas hortícolas, se corresponde con sus usos, y de hecho para cada una de estas finalidades el horticultor selecciona caracteres diferentes, por ejemplo la dureza de la cáscara preferida es diferente en zapallos y zapallitos y es diferente la importancia de la selección por color de pulpa, textura y sabor[cita 9] [cita 10] , y los zapallos que podrían ser vendidos como zapallitos (algunos de muy buena calidad para zapallito, como 'Butternut') pueden poseer características no rentables para ese uso como una cosecha de menor cantidad de frutos, maduración lenta, y cobertura del suelo más amplia que dificulta la cosecha[cita 11] , por lo que no son cultivados para tal fin.

Aun así se podía haber elegido otra ordenación en tablas, muchos taxónomos por ejemplo, adoptaron una clasificación basada en forma y dureza del fruto, útil para los criaderos de plantas que buscan la posibilidad de hibridar y mantener el mismo producto comercial final. Por eso se encontrarán casos como el de 'Vegetable Spaghetti' que pertenece a los "Zapallos Espaguetis" según su forma de consumo y al mismo tiempo pertenece al "Grupo Vegetable Marrow" en autores que dividen por la forma del fruto.

Zapallos (Winter squash)[editar]

Galería de submorfos de "zapallos" ("calabazas comestibles" en España y México), seleccionados para ser consumidos maduros, sólo cultivares y si landraces al menos medianamente delimitadas:

.

Zapallitos (Summer squash)[editar]

Galería de submorfos de "zapallitos", grupos de cultivares y si landraces, al menos medianamente delimitadas. A diferencia de los de guarda, los zapallitos son seleccionados para ser consumidos inmaduros, cuando la cáscara todavía no está lignificada, en general se prefiere que la cáscara sea resistente en el momento de la cosecha por lo que si se los deja madurar la cáscara es muy lignificada (dura) como la de las cucurbitas silvestres, aunque no poseen las cucurbitacinas que le dan el sabor amargo a los silvestres y a la mayoría de los "ornamentales"[cita 34] . Debido a esas características de la cáscara, muchos zapallitos al dejarlos madurar pueden ser utilizados como ornamentales.

Zapallos con uso primario específico[editar]

Galería de cultivares de zapallos de usos específicos: Spaghetti y aceitero.

Variedades tradicionales (landraces) poco estudiadas[editar]

Galería de submorfos de "landraces" hispanoparlantes de zapallos todavía poco delimitadas. Las landraces son antiguas y muchas veces con poca información científica y muy variables, el nombre se asigna más que nada a la localidad y a quién provee las semillas, y debido a la poca información científica no suele estar clara la relación entre la landrace y el market type, el producto que venden que se obtendrá, y también suele ser inexacta la descripción de los caracteres.

NOTA. Esta sección goza de poca información de nombres locales y fotos. Se invita a agregar nombres y fotos locales y hacer sugerencias en la discusión.

Calabazas comestibles cultivadas que no son zapallos[editar]

Calabacines no zapallitos (es decir, frutos inmaduros de Lagenaria siceraria comestibles, no amargos).


Galería de "calabazas comestibles cultivadas no zapallos", es decir cuyo sabor es fácilmente distinguible de los "zapallos" y por lo tanto tienen diferentes usos culinarios.

Calabazas no cultivadas[editar]

Poblaciones no cultivadas que son nombradas (en lenguas vernáculas) porque hibridan con zapallos o calabazas o tienen potencial de ser utilizadas (para consumo o con fines no alimenticios) o son muy comunes en alguna región, al ser silvestres la localidad es un dato importante para identificarlas, su morfología en general suele ser variable y por sí sola las hace difíciles de distinguir del resto de los taxones emparentados.

En México es donde se presenta la mayor diversidad de especies y poblaciones de Cucurbita silvestres y otras "calabazas" y nombres afines, en la siguiente tabla se encuentra una recopilación de nombres (Lira y Caballero 2002[43] , agregados nombres listados por la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, CONABIO[20] [44] cuando citados):

Especie Región o Estado Nombres comunes Usos
Apodanthera undulata Guanajuato Calabaza hedionda (o hedeonda) Medicinal (pulpa)
Jalisco/Zacatecas Calabaza amarga, calabaza loca Alimenticio (semillas)
Cucurbita argyrosperma ssp. sororia Chiapas Calabaza de caballo, calabaza de burro, coloquinto Manualidades (cáscara), medicinal (fruto), forraje (fruto)
Colima/Jalisco Agualaxtle, aguachichi, aguichichi, tolenche, tololonche, tolonchib Bebidas (semillas), medicinal (fruto)
Guerrero/Michoacán Calabaza de coyote, calabacilla, coyote, chamaco, chicayota Alimento (semillas), jabón (fruto)
Oaxaca Calabaza amarga, Guedu Iaac, Tecomachichi Alimento (semillas), medicinal (fruto), jabón (fruto)
Regiones no especificadas (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, CONABIO)[20] Pipián silvestre (nombre preferido por el CONABIO), otros: almochete, calabacilla, moriche, calabaza de pepita gruesa, calabaza chompo, trompo, ayote de caballo, calabaza de caballo, chamaco, chicayota. Nipxi (lengua totonaco), tinu (lengua mixteco), ka, xka, xtop (lengua maya); San Luis Potosí: k’ alam. "En algunas regiones de México, las semillas y también los frutos inmaduros se emplean como alimento; estos últimos se consumen después de ser lavados y hervidos varias veces, para quitarles el sabor amargo que les confieren las cucurbitacinas presentes en la pulpa y las placentas, mientras que las semillas sólo son lavadas, aderezadas con sal y asadas o tostadas."[21]
Cucurbita foetidissima Chihuahua Aala, alidimai, ara chiki, aisiki arisi, calabacilla, calabacilla de burro Medicinal (hojas y raíces), jabón (raíces), bebidas (semillas)
Coahuila/Nuevo León Calabacilla loca, calabaza silvestre, chichicamole Jabón (raíces)
Hidalgo Calabaza del diablo Medicinal (raíces)
Regiones no especificadas (nombres listados por el CONABIO[20] ) Calabacilla loca, otros nombres: calabacilla amarga, cohombro, hierba de la víbora, calabaza amargosa, calabacilla de burro. En el Bajío: calabacilla silvestre, calabaza de burro, calabaza hedionda, calabaza silvestre y calabaza del diablo. Cua-cua (lengua chontal), chichic-amole y guelto-lana (lengua zapoteca). -
Cucurbita fraterna Tamaulipas Calabacilla loca, calabacilla, calabaza amargosa Medicinal (fruto), alimento (fruto inmaduro y semillas), forraje (fruto maduro)
Cucurbita lundelliana Península de Yucatán Calabacita, calabacita de monte, xbon dzek, xburut Jabón (pulpa), Recipiente (cáscara)
Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp. martinezii Querétaro Calabacilla Sin datos
San Luis Potosí Calabacilla, tsoop Jabón (fruto)
Veracruz Calabacilla de monte, moriche, morcheta Jabón (fruto), sonajero (fruto), medicinal (fruto)
Cucurbita pedatifolia Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Calabacilla, torito Jabón (fruto)
Cucurbita scabridifolia Tamaulipas Calabacita Juguete (fruto)
Peponopsis adhaerens Querétaro Calabacilla Jabón (fruto)

Calabazas cultivadas de uso no alimenticio (ornamental gourds)[editar]

Galería de "calabazas ornamentales" (cultivadas para utlizar su cáscara lignificada con fines no alimenticios, como adornos, instrumentos musicales, recipientes, etc). Aquí van algunos ejemplos de usos y ejemplos de cultivos. Nota. Además de los cultivados con ese fin primario, los zapallitos al madurar en general tienen una cáscara muy lignificada y pueden usarse de adorno, lo mismo que las especies y subespecies silvestres. Asimismo, además de cultivarse "calabazas ornamentales" para ese fin primario, si la pulpa no es tóxica puede utilizarse como alimento, en especial como alimento de ganado.

Traducciones que no se corresponden con la definición de calabaza[editar]

"Galería de gourds (en inglés) traducidas como calabazas" (o en el caso de Sechium traducción del náhuatl o del chino como calabaza), esas que no se corresponden con la definición de calabaza sino que provienen de una traducción inexacta, listadas solamente para la desambiguación.

Clasificación según diferentes autores[editar]

A continuación la ubicación de cultivos y cultivares en cada grupo para cada autor, aunque en general aclaran que las semillerías no dan información del origen del cultivo y puede haber repeticiones y errores de ubicación:

En naranja-rojo Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997).[2]

En rojo Decker-Walters (ed., 1996).[59] para Lagenaria de Norteamérica. Decker-Walters (ed., 1996). [60] para Cucurbita no alimenticias ("gourds") de Norteamérica. [61] para Benincasa de Norteamérica.

En violeta Ferriol y Picó (2008).[11]

En verde bosque Millán (1947).[62]

En verde oscuro cultivares del INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria), Argentina.

En verde primavera Cumarasamy et al. 2002[63]

En verde amarillo International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter[25]

En turquesa, Krístková, Lebeda y Paris 2012[64] Separan las "gourds" de C. pepo en C. pepo subsp. texana, C. pepo subsp. pepo, C. pepo subsp. fraterna, y C. pepo "uncertain".

En aguamarina Otro paper de Cucurbitaceae 2012[65]

En turquesa pálido Shojaeiyan et al. 2012 en Proceedings[66]

En Azul "Medium Slate" PAL et al. 2007, Bangladesh[67]

En Almendra Blancuzco Mi Agriculture Information Bank. Cultivation of Lauki.[29]

En Kaki Munro y Small (1997[7] ) para cultivos de Canadá.

La región donde se desarrolló del cultivo/cultivar, cuando fue provista, se indica entre paréntesis.

"Nombres comerciales de semilla" de C. moschata Cultivares
C. moschata Cheese Group (grupo Queso) 'Calhoun'*[11] , 'Cheese'*[cita 33] , 'Chirimen'*[11] , 'Fairytale'**[11] , 'Futtsu Black'*[11] , 'Kentucky Field'*[11] , 'Large Cheese'*[11] , 'Large Sweet Cheese'*[11] , 'Long Island Cheese'*[11] , 'Magdalena Big Cheese'*[11] , 'Musquée de Provence'*[11] (='Moscata di Provenza'), 'Quaker Pie'*[11] , 'Tan Cheese'*[11]
C. moschata Crookneck Group (grupo Cuello Curvo, = Crane Neck es decir "cuello de grulla"[7] ) 'Argonaut'**[11] , 'Bugle Gramma'*[11] , 'Canada Crookneck'*[11] , 'Longue de Nice'*[11] , 'Lunga di Napoli'*[11] , 'NeckPumpkin'*[11] , 'Pennsylvania Dutch crookneck'*[11] , 'Tromba d'Albenga'*[11] (=Tromba di Albenga, Trombetta d'Albenga, Trombetta di Albenga), 'Winter Crookneck'*[11]
C. moschata Butternut Group o Bell Group (grupo Butternut o Campana) 'Alagold op'*[11] , 'Anquito Cokena' (Argentina)*[17] , 'Atlas'**[11] , 'Autumn Glow'*[11] , 'Avalon'**[11] , 'Butterboy'*[11] , 'Butternut'*p.80[cita 13] , 'Burpee’s Butterbush'*[11] , 'Butterbush'*[7] , 'Butternut'*[2] *[11] , 'Butternut Supreme'*[7] , 'Canada Crookneck'*p.80[cita 13] , 'Canesi'**[11] , 'Cokena INTA' (Argentina)*[4] , 'Cuyano INTA' (Argentina)*[68] [17] [4] [69] , 'Dorado INTA-MAPO' (Argentina)*[4] , 'Early Butternut'**[11] *[7] , 'Estribo'**[11] , 'Frontera INTA' (Argentina)*[17] [68] [4] [69] , 'Li’l Abner'**[11] , 'Menina Rajada Seca'*[11] , 'Metro PMR'**[11] , 'Nicklow’s Delight'*[11] , 'Paquito INTA' (Argentina)*[68] [4] [69] , 'Pilgrim'**[11] , 'Ponca Butternut'*[11] , 'Puritan Butternut'*[11] , 'Really Big'**[11] , 'Rebenque'**[11] , 'Sucrine du Berry'*[11] , 'Supreme'**[11] (=? 'Butternut Supreme'?), 'Tahitian Butternut'*[11] , 'Ultra Butternut'**[11] , 'Violina'*[11] , 'Waltham'*[11] , 'Waltham Butternut'*p.80[cita 13] *[17] *[7] (quizás sea el mismo que Waltham?), 'Zenith'**[11] ,
C. moschata Otros (+ C. moschata pumpkin) 'Buckskin'**[11] , 'Chirimen' (Japón)*[cita 79] , 'Colombian landraces'*[cita 79] , 'Cuban Pumpkin'*[11] , 'Dickinson'*[11] , 'Early Buckskin'*[11] , 'Fordhook Acorn'*[11] , 'Golden Cushaw'*[10] *[11] , 'Kikuza' (Japón)*[cita 79] , 'Seminole Pumpkin'*[10] *[11]
C. moschata tipo pumpkin*p.173[7] 'Buckskin'**[7]
Sin clasificar 'CCM26'*[66] , 'Duma' (Brasil)*[65] , 'Menina'*[66] , 'Nigerian Local' (Nigeria)*[66] , 'Soler' (Puerto Rico)*[66] *[65] , 'Taína Dorada' (Puerto Rico)*[65] , 'Verde Luz' (Puerto Rico)*[65]

* indica F1. La ausencia de asterisco indica cultivo de polinización abierta, breeding line, o falta de información sobre este cultivo.

Nombres comerciales de semillas de C. argyrosperma Cultivo
C. argyrosperma var. argyrosperma 'Silverseed Gourd'*[11]
C. argyrosperma var. stenosperma 'Elfrida Taos'*[11]
C. argyrosperma var. callicarpa 'Allneck Cushaw'*[11] , 'Black Tennessee Sweet Potato'*[11] , 'Campeche'*[11] , 'Chompa'*[11] , 'Cushaw Crookneck Green Striped'*[11] , 'Green Striped Cushaw'*[10] *[11] , 'Hopi'*[11] , 'Japanese Pie'*[11] (=[cita 80] 'Nippon Island'), 'Mayo Arrote'*[11] , 'Navajo Cushaw'*[11] , 'Prima Bajo Sequalca'*[11] , 'Tennessee Sweet Potato'*[11] , 'Tricolor Cushaw'*[11] , 'Veracruz Pepita'*[11] , 'White Cushaw'*[11] (='Cushaw White' =[cita 81] 'Jonathan Pumpkin' =[cita 81] 'White Salem Pumpkin'), 'Zebra Mystery'*[11]
C. argyrosperma var. callicarpa tipo pumpkin (= sweet potato, "batata")*p.173[7] 'Japanese Pie'*p.173[7] (=[cita 80] 'Nippon Island'), 'Sweet Dumpling' (may be this species*[7] ), 'Sweet Potato'*p.173[7] , 'White Cushaw'*p.173[7] (='Cushaw White' =[cita 81] 'Jonathan Pumpkin' =[cita 81] 'White Salem Pumpkin')


"Nombre comercial de semilla" de C. pepo Cultivares
C. pepo Acorn Group (grupo Bellota, =Pepper squash, "zapallo pimiento"[7] ) 'Autumn Prince op'*[11] , 'Autumn Queen'*[11] , 'Celebration'**[11] , 'Carnival'*[11] , 'Cream of the Crop'*, 'Early acorn'*[11] , 'Festival'*[11] , 'Harlequin'**[11] , 'Heart of Gold'*[11] , 'Jersey Golden Acorn'*[10] , 'Mardi Gras'**[11] , 'Mammoth Table Queen'*[11] , 'Mesa Queen'**[11] , 'Royal Acorn' (USA)*[11] *[64] , 'Swan White Table Queen'*[11] , 'Sweet Dumpling' (UK)*[11] *[64] , 'Table Ace'*p.79[cita 31] *[11] , 'Table Gold'*[11] , 'Table King'*[11] *[7] , 'Table Queen' (USA)*p.79[cita 31] *[11] *[64] *[7] , 'Table Queen Ebony'*[11] , 'Table Star'*[11] , 'Tay belle'*[66] *[7] ('Taybelle'**[11] ), 'Thelma Sanders'*[66] , 'Tuffy'*[11] , 'White Acorn'*[11] , 'Yugoslavian Finger'*[66]
C. pepo Pumpkin Group (grupo Pumpkin, tipo Halloween) -"summer pumpkin" -"Hull-less oil pumpkin" aceitero[11] +"summer pumpkin" +"Hull-less oil pumpkin" aceitero[64] +"summer pumpkin"[25] -"Hull-less" oil pumpkin (aceitero)[66] 'Aladdin'**[11] , 'Appalachian'*, 'Aspen'**[11] , 'Autumn King'*[11] , 'Big Autumn'*[11] , 'Baby Bear'*p.79[cita 20] , 'Chinese Miniature'*[66] , 'Cinderella'*[25] , 'Citrouille de Touraine' (Francia)*[64] , 'Connecticut Field' (USA)*p.79[cita 19] *[11] *[64] *[25] *[7] , 'Dagestan' (Dagestan)*[64] *[25] , 'Early Autumn'**[11] , 'Early Harvest'**[11] , 'Gladiator'**[11] , 'Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis' (Austria)*[64] , 'Ghost Rider'*[7] , 'GoldFever'*[11] , 'Gold Keeper'*[11] , 'Gold Rush'*[11] , 'Gold Standard'*[11] , 'Gold Strike'**[11] , 'Gourmet Globe'*[25] , 'Happy Jack'*[7] , 'Howden'**[11] , 'Howdy Doody'**[11] , 'Jack Be Little' (USA)*p.79[cita 20] , 'Khutorianka'*[25] , 'Jack O’ Lantern'*[11] *[25] *[7] , 'Jack of All Trades'**[11] , 'Li’l Goblin'**[11] , 'Li’l Ironsides'**[11] , 'Longface'*[11] , 'Magic Lantern'**[11] , 'Merlin'**[11] , 'Mother Lode'*[11] , 'Munchkin' (USA)*p.79[cita 20] , 'Mystic'**[11] , 'New England Pie'*[11] , 'Nonkadi' (Uzbekistan)*[64] *[25] 'Peek a Boo'**[11] , 'Phantom'*[11] , 'Pick-a-Pie'*[11] , 'Pomme d'Or'*[66] , 'Porqueira'*[25] , 'Racer'**[11] , 'Rocket'*[11] , 'Schooltime'**[11] , 'Small Sugar' (USA)*[11] *[64] *[25] *[7] , 'Sorcerer'**[11] , 'Spirit'**[11] , 'Spookie'*[11] *[25] , 'Spooktacular'*[11] , 'Tallman'*[11] , 'Tender and True' ("summer pumpkin" U.K.)*[64] , 'Tondo di Nizza' (Italia)*[64] (Ronde de Nice*[25] ), 'Tondo di Padana'*[66] , 'Tondo Verde Scuro di Piacenza' (Italia)*[64] *[25] , 'Tours'*[11] , 'Trickster'**[11] , 'Ukrainska Nogoplodna'*[25] , 'Uzbekistan Local Pumpkin'*[25] , 'Wee Be little'*[11] , 'Winter Luxury'*[25] , 'Winter Luxury Pie'*[11] , 'Wizard'*[11]
C. pepo grupo Hull-less o Semihulless ("Oilkurbis"*[66] ) 'Anton Berger'*[66] , 'Baby Bear'*[11] , 'Chinesischer'*[66] , 'Eat All'*[11] , 'Estancia Bugar'*[66] , 'Georgica'*[66] , 'Gleisdorfer'*[66] , 'Gleisdorfer Öilkurbis'*[11] , 'Hull-Less'*[11] , 'Kakai'*[66] , 'Lady Godiva'*p.79-80[cita 47] *[11] *[66] , 'Lu's Oilkurbis'*[66] , 'Markant'*[66] , 'Miranda'*[66] , 'Retzer Gold'*[66] , 'S-Afrika'*[66] , 'Sepp'*[66] , 'Slovenska Golica'*[66] , 'Snackjack'**[11] , 'Streaker'*[11] , 'Styrian Pumpkin'*[11] , 'Szentesi Oliva'*[66] , 'Trick or Treat'*[11] , 'Triple Treat'*p.79-80[cita 47] *[11]
C. pepo Spaghetti Group (grupo Spaghetti) 'Goldetti'**[11] , 'Hasta la Pasta'*[11] , 'Heaven'**[11] , 'Orangetti'**p.79[cita 46] *[11] , 'Pasta'**[11] , 'Small Wonder'**[11] , 'Spaghetti Tivoli'*[11] , 'Stripetti'**[11] , 'Trifetti'**[11] , 'Vegetable Spaghetti'*p.79[cita 45] *[11] , 'Vermicelli'**[11]
C. pepo Ornamental Group (grupo Ornamental) )(=Cucurbita gourds sensu Decker-Walters[60] )+subsp. texana + subsp. pepo + subsp. fraterna[11] 'Apple' ('Early Apple', 'Apple Squash')*[cita 82] , 'Autumn Wings' (='Swan')*[cita 83] *[11] , 'Baby Boo'*[11] , 'Baby Pam'*[11] , 'Bell' ('Bishop's Mitre of 1866')*[cita 84] , 'Bicolor Pear' ('Pear, Bicolor', =[60] 'Ringed Pear')*[cita 85] *[11] , 'Big Bell' (='Bell, Big')*[cita 86] , 'Brazilian Sugar' ('Brazilian', 'Brazilian Sugar Gourd')*[cita 87] , 'Crown of Thorns' (='Finger', ='Holy Gourd', ='Sugar Bowl')*[cita 88] , 'Der Wing'*[cita 89] , 'Egg' (=[60] 'Nest Egg', =[60] 'White Egg', =[60] 'Goose Egg')*[cita 90] *[11] *[7] , 'Flat'*[25] , 'Flat Striped' (=[60] 'Broad Striped', =[60] 'White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd', orthographic error: 'Flat Stripped'[11] )*[cita 91] *[11] , 'Galeuses'*[11] , 'Gremlin'*[11] , 'Jack B Little'*[11] , 'Ladle' ('Scoop')*[cita 92] , 'Li’l Pum-KeMon'*[11] , 'Little Boo'*[11] , 'Miniature' (=ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Miniature Ball')*[cita 93] *[11] *[25] , 'Munchkin'*[11] , 'Orange' (=[60] 'Orange Ball', =[60] 'Mock Orange')*[cita 94] *[11] *[25] , 'Orange Small'*[11] , 'Pam'**[11] , 'Pear'*[11] , 'Pineapple' (=[60] 'Early Pineapple', =[60] 'White Pineapple', =[60] 'White Turban')*[cita 95] , 'Shenot Crown of Thorns' (='Crown of Thorns, Shenot')*[cita 96] , 'Spoon'*[11] *[7] , 'Spoon' (=[60] 'Bicolor Spoon', =[60] 'Small Spoon')*[cita 97] ='Spoon Bicolor'*[11] , 'Striped Crown of Thorns' (='Crown of Thorns, Striped')*[cita 98] *[11] , 'Striped Pear' ('Pear, Striped')*[cita 99] *[11] , 'Warty' (=[60] 'Orange Warted', =[60] 'Warty Hardhead', =[60] 'Warty Fancy Gourd')*[cita 100] *[11] , 'Wee-BLittle op'*[11] , 'White Ball'*[cita 101] *[11] , 'White Pear' ('Pear, White')*[cita 102] , 'Yellow Ball' (='Ball, Yellow')*[cita 103]
C. pepo subsp. pepo "gourds" +zapallitos gema o Unique[64] 'Little Gem' (Sudáfrica)*[64] , 'Rolet' (Sudáfrica[25] )*[64] , 'Orange Ball' (Canadá)*[64] , 'Orange Warted' (Canadá)*[64] , 'PI 442309' (México)*[64] , 'PI 442313' (México)*[64]
C. pepo subsp. texana "gourds"[64] 'Shenot´s Crown of Thorns' (Canada)*[64] , 'Striped Pear' (Canada)*[64] , 'Wild Arkansas' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'Wild Texas' (U.S.A.)*[64]
C. pepo subsp. fraterna "gourds"[64] 'Wild Mexico' (México)*[64]
C. pepo Grupo de "gourds" de subsp. desconocida 'Flat' (Canada)*[64] , 'Miniature Ball' (Canada)*[64]
C. pepo Otros (de guarda) 'Bush Delicata'*[11] , 'Camäleon'*[11] , 'Delicata'*p.79[cita 104] *[11] *[7] , 'Vegetable Spaghetti'*[7]
C. pepo Zucchini Group 'Black Beauty'*[25] , 'Black Jack'*p.78[2] *[7] , 'Black Zucchini' (U.S.A., Field)*p.78[2] *[64] , 'Burpee's Golden Zucchini'*p79[2] , 'Erken'*[66] , 'Fordhork Zucchini' (U.S.A.)*[64] *[25] , 'Nero di Milano' (Italia)*[64] *[25] , 'Nano Verde di Milano'*[25] , 'Seneca Select'*[7] , 'True French' (U.K.)*[64] *[66] ('TrueFrench'*[25] ), 'Verde di Milano'*[25] , 'Zucchini Dark Green'*[7] , 'Zucchini Grey', 'Zucchini Select'*[7]
C. pepo Vegetable Marrow Group 'Alba'*[66] , 'Beirut'*[25] , 'Blanche non-coureuse' (Francia)*[64] *[25] , 'Bianco di Palermo'*[25] , 'Bolognese'*[25] , 'Bulgarian Summer'*[66] , 'Caserta'*p.79[cita 105] *[25] , 'Cousa' (Este Medio)*[cita 106] [2] , 'M2546' (Israel)*[64] , PI 181763 (from Lebanon)*[25] , 'Table Dainty' (U.K.)*[64] *[25] , 'Gornurekhovskiye'*[25] , 'Vegetable Marrow'*[25] , 'Vegetable Spaghetti' (Japón)*[64] , 'Verte Petite d'Alger' (Francia)*[64] *[25] , 'Vegetable Spaghetti'*[25] , 'Yakor'*[25]
C. pepo Cocozelle Group 'Alberello di Sarzane'*[25] , 'Cocozelle' (USA)*p.79[cita 107] , 'Cocozelle Tripolis' (Alemania)*[64] *[25] , 'Long Cocozelle' (USA)*[64] *[25] , 'Lungo Bianco di Sicilia' (Italia)*[64] *[25] , 'Lungo di Toscana'*[25] , PI 165018 (from Turkey)*[25] , 'Romanesco' (Italia)*[64] , 'Striato d'Italia' (Italia)*[64] *[66] *[25] , 'Striato Pugliese'*[25] , 'Verte Non-Coureuse d'Italie' (Francia)*[64] *[25]
C. pepo Grupo zapallitos Cuello Recto (Straightneck) 'Creamy' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'Early Prolific Straightneck' (U.S.A.)*p.79[cita 43] *[64] , 'General Patton'*[66] , 'Seneca Butterbar' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'Sunary'*[66] , 'Yankee Hybrid' (USA))*p.79[cita 108]
C. pepo Grupo zapallitos Cuello curvo (Crookneck) 'Bianco Friulano'*[66] , 'CN3'*[66] , 'Courge cour Tours'*[66] , 'Early Crookneck' (U.S.A. Field)*[64] , 'Early Summer Crookneck' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'Sundance'*[66] , 'Yellow Crookneck' (USA)*p.79[cita 41] , 'Yellow Summer Crookneck' (U.S.A.)*[64]
C. pepo Grupo zapallitos escalopados (=Vieira, Scallop) (=Flat-shaped, "aplanados"[7] , =Patisson[66] =Patty pan[24] ) 'Early White Bush'*[66] , 'Galeux'*[66] , 'Golden Bush Scallop' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'White Bush Scallop' (U.S.A. Field)*p.79[cita 109] *[64] , 'Yellow Bush Scallop' (U.S.A.)*[64] , 'White Scallop'*[7]
Unique*[25] (zapallitos gema, de Sudáfrica) 'Little Gem' (Sudáfrica)*[25] , 'Rolet' (Sudáfrica)*[25]
Sin clasificar 'Rumbo' (Seminis Inc., Korea)*[67] , 'Bulum' (Seminis Inc., Korea)*[67]

*indica F1. La ausencia de asterisco negro indica polinización abierta, breeding line, o falta de información

"Nombre comercial de semilla" de C. maxima Cultivares
C. maxima Banana Group (grupo Banana) 'Blue Banana'*[11] , 'Orange Banana'*[11] , 'Pink Banana'*[11] , 'Pink Banana Jumbo'*[11] , 'Mammoth Jumbo'*[11] , 'Plymouth Rock'*[11]
C. maxima Delicious Group (grupo Delicious) 'Delicious'*[11] , 'Golden Delicious'*[11] , 'Green delicious'*[11] , 'Faxon'*[11] , 'Quality'*[11]
C. maxima Marrow Group (grupo Marrow) 'Autumnal Marrow'*[11] , 'Boston Marrow'*[11] , 'Golden Bronze'*[11] , 'Ohio'*[11] , 'Valparaiso'*[11] , 'Wilder'*[11]
C. maxima Hubbard Group (grupo Hubbard)+'Little Gem' de zapallitos Gema, Sudáfrica 'Arikara'*[11] , 'Baby Blue'*[11] , 'Baby Green'*[11] , 'Baby Red'*[11] (=Red Kuri), 'Blue Ballet'*[11] , 'Blue Hubbard'*[11] , 'Blue Magic'**[11] , 'Brighton'*[11] , 'Chicago Warted Hubbard'*[11] , 'Golden Hubbard'*[11] *[7] , 'Green Hubbard'*[11] , 'Green Warted Hubbard'*[11] , 'Hubbard'*[69] , 'Kitchenette'*[11] , 'Little Gem' (Sudáfrica)*[11] , 'Marblehead'*[11] (='Marble Head'), 'New England Blue Hubbard'*[7] , 'Orange Magic'**[11] , 'Red Hubbard'*[11] , 'True Green Hubbard'*[7] , 'True Hubbard'*[11] , 'Uchiki kuri'*[11] (=Red kuri), 'Umatilla Marble Head'*[11] , 'Warted Hubbard'*[11] , 'Yakima Marble Head'*[11]
C. maxima Show Group (grupo Show, =C. maxima "pumpkin"[cita 110] )+Mamooth[11] +Mamooth[7] 'Atlantic Giant'*p.82[cita 29] *[11] *[7] , 'Big Max'*p.82[cita 29] *[11] , 'Big Moon'*[11] , 'Cinderella (Rouge Vif d´Estampes)'*[11] , 'Dill’s Atlantic Giant'*[11] , 'Etampes'*[11] , 'First Prize'**[11] , 'Mammoth Chili'*[11] , 'Mammoth Gold'*[11] *[7] , 'Prizewinner'**[11] , 'Virginia Mammoth'*[11] , 'Wyatt’s Wonder'*[11]
C. maxima Turban Group (grupo Turbante, = "C. maxima gourds"[7] ) +Buttercup +Zapallito +Buttercup[cita 111] 'Aladdin’s Turban'*[11] , 'AutumnCup'**[11] , 'Bonbon'**[11] , 'Burgess Buttercup'*[11] , 'Bush Buttercup'p.81[cita 112] *[11] , 'Buttercup'p.81[cita 112] *[11] , 'Crown'*[11] , 'Crown Prince'**[11] , 'Essex'*[11] , 'MiniRed Turban'*[11] , 'Mooregold'*[11] , 'New Zealand Blue'*[11] , 'Orange Dawn'**[11] , 'Queensland Blue'*[11] , 'Red China'*[11] , 'Red Warren'*[11] , 'Sweetmeat'*[11] , 'Tiny Turk'*[11] , 'Turk’s Turban'*p.81[cita 25] *[11] , 'Warren'*[11] , Zapallito Redondo de Tronco*[11]
C. maxima Buttercup class 'Buttercup'*[7] , 'Golden Nugget'*[7] , 'Honey Delight'*[7] , 'Sweet Mama'*[7]
C. maxima Zapallito Group (grupo Zapallito),C. maxima var. zapallito*[62] *[cita 113] [2] 'Cachí Magnif INTA' (Argentina)*[17] , 'Veronés INTA' (Argentina)*[68] [17]
C. maxima Kabocha Group (grupo Kabocha)+Hokkaido aparentemente -híbridos C. maxima x C. moschata +Buttercup[63] 'Aijehei'**[11] *[63] , 'Ambercup'**[11] , 'Black Forest'**[11] , 'Cha-Cha'**[11] , 'Delica'**[11] *[63] (=Ebisu), 'Eclipse'**[11] , 'Emiguri'**[11] *[63] , 'Gatton'**[11] , 'Golden Debut'**[11] , 'Golden Orbit'**[11] , 'Hokkori'**[11] , 'Hokkori'**[11] , 'Honey Delight'**[11] , 'Japan Cup'**[11] , 'Jarrahdale'**[11] , 'Kofuki'*[63] , 'Kurijiman'**[11] , 'Miyako'*[63] , 'Nutty Delica'**[11] , 'Pacifica'**[11] , 'Sweet Mama'**[11] (=Tsurunashi Yakko), 'Sunshine'**[11] , 'T133'*[63] , 'Tetsukabuto'*[71]
Otros 'Casper'*[11] , 'Confection'**[11] , 'Dulce de Horno'*[11] (=Buen Gusto), 'Galeuse d’Eysines'*[11] (='Galeux d'Eysines'), 'Gold Nugget'*[11] , 'Lakota'*[11] , 'Lumina'*[11] , 'One Too Many'*[11] , 'Red Warty Thing'*[11] (=[cita 114] 'Victor'*p.80-81[cita 115] ), 'Triamble'*[11] , Valenciano*, Zapallo plomo*[11] , 'Colorado La Banda INTA 70'*[17]
Valenciano (nombre comercial Mendoza, Argentina) 'Pecas INTA'*[68] , 'Marino de Mendoza'*[17]
Sin clasificar Max 85 (type specimen)*[66] , Maxi 158 (type specimen)*[66] , Maxi 199 (type specimen)*[66]

*indica F1. La ausencia de asterisco negro indica polinización abierta, breeding line, o falta de información

Cucurbita maxima Tipo Hoyo (C. maxima var. triloba), Cucurbita maxima Tipo Zipinka (C. maxima var. zipinka) de Millán (1947) aparentemente no fueron encontrados o reconocidos en las semillerías.


"Nombre comercial de semilla" de Lagenaria siceraria Cultivos
L. siceraria calabaza "gourd" (para fines no alimenticios, nota: si bien aclara si el uso es culinario en cada cultivar, el autor no subdividió en ornamentales/alimenticias) Decker-Walters (ed., 1996).[59] 'Acoma Rattle' (New Mexico, USA)[cita 116] , 'Apple' (='African Square', 'Big Apple')[cita 117] , 'Banana'*[cita 118] , 'Basket, Hollar'*[cita 119] , 'Basketball'*[cita 120] , 'Birdhouse' (='Purple Martin House', ='Bird's Nest')[cita 57] , 'Blow Gun Kapok' (='Cofan Kapok') (Amazonas)[cita 121] , 'Bottle' (='Common Bottle', ='Pilgrim', 'Dumbbell')[cita 122] , 'Bottle, Baby'*[cita 123] , 'Bottle, Black Seeded'*[cita 60] , 'Bottle, Chinese'*[cita 124] , 'Bottle, Indonesian' (Bali, Indonesia)[cita 125] , 'Bottle, Large'*[cita 126] , 'Bottle, Mexican'*[cita 127] , 'Bottle, Miniature' (SE Asia)[cita 128] , 'Bottle, Sennari'*[cita 129] , 'Bushel' (='Bushel Basket')[cita 130] , 'Cannonball'*[cita 131] , 'Cheese'*[cita 132] , 'Cheese Gourd'*[cita 133] , 'Chinese Water Jug' (='Giant Bottle', 'Water Jug')[cita 134] , 'Club' (='Clavata', ='Hercules Club', ='Trumpet')[cita 134] , 'Corsican Flat'*[cita 135] , 'Cow Leg' (Taiwan)[cita 136] , 'Dipper' (='Siphon', ='Retort')[cita 61] , 'Dipper, Apache' (Arizona, USA)[cita 62] , 'Dipper, Extra Long Handled'*[cita 63] , 'Dipper, Long Handled'*[cita 64] , 'Dipper, Miniature'*[cita 65] , 'Dipper, O'odham'*[cita 66] , 'Dipper, Santo Domingo'*[cita 67] , 'Dipper, Short Handled'*[cita 68] , 'Dipper, South Seas Island'*[cita 69] , 'Dipper, Tarahumara'*[cita 70] , 'Giant African Water Bottle'*[cita 55] , 'Gooseneck, SSE'*[cita 137] , 'Hahre-hawan'*[cita 138] , 'Hawaiian Mask' ('Hawaiian Ipu Nui') (Hawái)[cita 139] , 'Hopi Rattle' (Arizona, USA nativo)[cita 140] , 'Japanese Long' (='Japanese Bottle Siphon') (Japón)[cita 141] , 'Japanese Round Basket' (='Japanese Round')[cita 141] , 'Kettle' (='African Kettle', ='Big Calabash of Africa')[cita 142] , 'Knob Kerrie'*[cita 143] , 'Little Man'*[cita 144] , 'Long Marmorata'*[cita 145] , 'Longneck'*[cita 146] , 'Lump-in-the-neck' (SO USA)[cita 147] , 'Maranka' (='Dolphin', ='Dinosaur, Monkey', ='Cave Man's Club', ='Swan', ='Alley Oop', ='Alligator')[cita 148] , 'Mayo'*[cita 149] , 'Mayo Bilobal'*[cita 150] , 'Mayo Giant Bule' (Sonora, México)[cita 151] , 'Mayo Gooseneck' (Sonora, México)[cita 152] , 'Mayo Teardrop Bule'*[cita 153] , 'Mayo Warty Bule' (Sonora, México)[cita 153] , 'Nigerian Saybo'(morfo1[cita 154] , morfo2[cita 155] ), 'O'odham Small Bilobal' (Tohono O'odham Nation)[cita 156] , 'Oval Basket'*[cita 157] , 'Penis Sheath' (Nueva Guinea)[cita 74] , 'Peru Sugar Bowl'*[cita 54] , 'Peyote Ceremonial' (SO USA)[cita 158] , 'Pipe' (='Calabash Pipe', ='South African Calabash Pipe')[cita 59] , 'Powder Horn' (='Courge Poire à Poudre', ='Powder', ='Penguin') (Francia)[cita 159] , 'Purple Martin' (='Martin', 'Bird's Nest', a veces 'Birdhouse' que es aplicado a un rango más amplio de frutos) (SE de USA nativo)[cita 58] , 'Rainy Queen'*[cita 160] , 'Small Gourd of Brazil'*[cita 161] , 'Small Gourd of Guinea' (='Microcarpa')[cita 162] , 'Snake, Long Green' (='Elongata') (Egipto)[cita 163] , 'Snake, San Juan' (USA nativo)[cita 164] , 'Snake, Wonder' (India)[cita 165] , 'Straightneck Wren House'*[cita 71] , 'Swan' (='Goose', ='Speckled Swan', a veces "Swan" se aplica equivocadamente como sinónimo de 'Maranka') (USA nativo)[cita 53] , 'Tarahumara Biolobal'*[cita 166] , 'Tarahumara Canteen' (Chihuahua, México)*[cita 167] , 'Tarahumara Chatos'*[cita 168] , 'Tarahumara Small Bule'*[cita 169] , 'Tepehuan Canteen' (Chihuahua, México)*[cita 170] , 'Tobacco Box' (='Snuff Box')*[cita 171] , 'Trough'*[cita 172] , 'Trough Bali Sugar' (Bali, Indonesia)*[cita 173] , 'Trough, Sugar'*[cita 174] , 'Verma Wonder' (India)*[cita 175] , 'Warty, African'*[cita 176] , 'Warty, Hardshell' (USA)*[cita 177] , 'Yaqui Deer Dance Rattle' (Sonora, México)*[cita 72]
L. siceraria calabacín comestible (nota: si bien aclara si el uso es culinario en cada cultivar, el autor no subdividió en ornamentales/alimenticias) Decker-Walters (ed., 1996).[59] 'Early Green Long' (China)[cita 178] , 'Extra Long' (SE Asia)[cita 179] , 'Kampyo' (='Yûgao')[cita 180] , 'Large and Long' (China)[cita 144] , 'Long Calabash' (='Calabash Extra Long')[cita 145] , 'Long White Prolific'*[cita 181] , 'Longissima' (='Baton', ='Long Club', ='Italian Edible', ='Cucuzzi', ='Cucuzzi Caravazzi', ='Snake', ='Flute', ='Serpent') (Italia)[cita 48] , 'Med-Log Calabash' (='Medium Long')[cita 182] , 'New Guinea Butter Bean' (=New Guinea Butter Vine')[cita 183] , 'Pusa Summer Prolific Long'*[cita 184] , 'Summer King'*[cita 53] , 'Zucca' (='Sheep's Nose')*[cita 185] , 'Zucca Siciliano'*[cita 186]
L. siceraria calabacín comestible Lauki o Dudhi 'Summer Prolific Round'*[29] , 'Summer Prolific Long'*[29] , 'Pusa Naveen' (error ortográfico: 'Pusa Navven'*[29] ), 'Arka Bahar'*[29] , 'Pusa Manjiri'*[29] , 'Pusa Meghdoot'*[29]


"Nombre comercial de semilla" de Benincasa hispida Cultivos
Benincasa hispida comestibles inmaduros (nota: si bien aclara si el uso es culinario en cada cultivar, el autor no subdividió en comestibles maduras/comestibles inamduras) Decker-Walters (ed., 1996).[61] 'Chinese Fuzzy' (='Fuzzy Squash', ='Fuzzy Melon')*[cita 52] , 'Round'*[cita 187]
Benincasa hispida comestibles maduros (nota: si bien aclara si el uso es culinario en cada cultivar, el autor no subdividió en comestibles maduras/comestibles inamduras) Decker-Walters (ed., 1996).[61] 'Chinese Preserving Melon' (='Courge à la cire', ='Chinese Winter Melon')*[cita 188] , 'Giant'*[cita 189] , 'Green Long and White' (='Long White')*[cita 190] , 'Large Round'*[cita 191] , 'Long Fuzzy'*[cita 192] , 'Oblong'*[cita 193] , 'Small Chinese'*[cita 194] , 'Super Soup' (Taiwan)*[cita 195] , 'Ton Qwa Round'*[cita 196] , 'Tong Qua Large White'*[cita 197]


"Nombre comercial de semilla" de C. ecuadorensis Cultivos
C. ecuadorensis Nombre local "ecuadorensis" Ecuadorensis (type specimen)*[66]

Enlaces externos[editar]

Citas[editar]

  1. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 72, siendo summer squash sinónimo de "zapallito" (fruto consumido inmaduro) y winter squash sinónimo de "zapallo" (fruto consumido maduro): "Cultivars are classified as summer squash (sometimes called vegetable marrow) or winter squash, depending on whether the fruit is used when immature or mature. The term winter squash refers to the ability of the fruit to be stored until the winter months. Summer squashes are generally (nota: en USA) C. pepo, but winter squashes may be C. pepo (e.g. 'Acorn'), C. maxima ('Hubbard'), C. moschata ('Butternut') or C. argyrosperma ('Green Striped Cushaw')."
  2. Campo Mexicano (campomexicano.gob.mx) [5] "COSECHA. Se lleva a cabo de los 3 a 5 meses de la siembra, las que se cultivan para primicia se les cosecha antes de llegar a plena madurez, a mitad o 3/4 de cáscara, o sea cuando se puede hincar la uña."
  3. El Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[6] ), que rige únicamente sobre cultivares, artículo 3.4: "3.4. A cultivar, plant or combination thereof that constitutes part of one Group might also be designated as belonging to another Group, should such assignments have a practical purpose. Ex. 10. Solanum tuberosum ‘Desiree’ may be designated part of a Maincrop Group and a Red-skinned Group since both such designations may be practical to buyers of potatoes. It may thus be written Solanum tuberosum (Maincrop Group) ‘Desiree’ in one classification or as Solanum tuberosum (Red-skinned Group) ‘Desiree’ in another, depending on the purpose of the classification used."
  4. Munro y Small (1997[7] ) p. 172: "The four cultivated Cucurbita discussed below [C. pepo, C. moschata, C. argyrosperma, C. maxima] have developed such similar fruit forms that all four species have cultivars commonly known as [winter] pumpkins, three as winter squash, two as summer squash, and two as [not edible] gourds."
  5. Andres 2004a[8] : "Production statistics do not often distinguish between this species (Cucurbita moschata) and the other species of squash and pumpkin."
  6. Canadá. Munro y Small (1997[7] ) p. 172: "Canadian statistics for "squash" are not separated by individual species (C. pepo, C. moschata, C. argyrosperma, C. maxima)."
  7. Para Argentina. Fernández Lozano. 2012[9] P. 11. El gráfico "Producción en toneladas", figura de la página 3, los clasifica sólo en zapallos y zapallitos, por lo que clasifica todos los cultivos argentinos comestibles sólo en maduros o inmaduros. Sólo hortalizas, es decir que el mate no se considera en el gráfico, ni nada con fines no alimenticios. En Argentina hay cultivos de las 4 especies de zapallos y de 2 especies (C. maxima y C. pepo) de zapallitos.
  8. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas name.3Dcucurbita_4_species_vegetables_of_canada
  9. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[10] ) p. 77: "During domestication in pre-Columbian times, people selected for non-lignified fruit rinds in winter squashes and pumpkins, which were usually consumed when ripe. Hard rind, which is conditioned by a single dominant allele in C. pepo, is found in many cultivars of summer squash that are consumed before rind lignification becomes objectionable." p. 77: "Summer squash generally has white flesh and low soluble solids content, but winter squash has been bred to have orange, carotenoid-rich flesh high in soluble solids.")
  10. Se seleccionan caracteres diferentes según su finalidad como zapallo/zapallito/ornamentales: "Non-lignified rinds are preferred in fruits consumed when ripe, such as many C. pepo winter squashes, in contrast with ornamental gourds and summer squashes. (Ferriol y Picó 2008[11] P. 331)" Otra cita: "Commercial standards for fresh market squash usually refer to cultivar purity and lack of fruit defects, and do not reflect quality traits appreciated by consumers. These are different in summer and winter squash. In the latter, consumers appreciate fruit size, shape, and colour. However, eating acceptability is most often related to flesh colour, consistency, flavour, and sweetness, traits that may play a minor role in summer squashes (Daniel et al., 1995)." (Ferriol y Picó 2008[11] p. 336)
  11. "Immature fruits of winter squash cultivars like 'Jersey Golden Acorn' (Cucurbita pepo) may be eaten like summer squash. 'Butternut' and similar cultivars of C. moschata are of high quality when immature. However, they are seldom marketed this way due to relatively low yield, late maturity, and the viny habit, which makes harvesting difficult." (Robinson y Decker-Walker 1997[10] p. 77)
  12. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: "Three horticultural groupings of C. moschata cultivars are recognized in the commercial trade of North America: (...) Bell. Fruit bell-shaped to almost cylindrical."
  13. a b c d e Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: "The bell squash 'Butternut' is an important winter squash with excellent quality. It was selected for better fruit shape from the heirloom cultivar 'Canada Crookneck' and introduced by the Breck Seed Company in 1936. The elongated neck of the buff-coloured 'Butternut' fruit is generally straight but occasionally curved. The neck is entirely usable because the small seed cavity is confined to the bulbous base of the fruit. 'Waltham Butternut' is similar, but produces a higher proportion of fruits with straight necks. It was obtained by crossing 'New Hampshire Butternut' with an African plant introduction to the USA, and has been a very popular cultivar ever since its commercial introduction in 1970".
  14. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: "Three horticultural groupings of C. moschata cultivars are recognized in the commercial trade of North America: (..) Crookneck. Fruit round at the blossom end with a long straight or curved neck."
  15. (1997[7] ) p. 81: "In Mexico, fruits with large, edible seeds rather than edible fruits [pulp] have been selected. The seeds are sold commercially in Mexico and Guatemala. Farther south the immature fruits are used as a vegetable. In northern Mexico, selections have been made for both edible seeds and fruits (Merrick 1990)."
  16. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Pumpkin: Fruit orange, round or oval."
  17. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 77: "In the USA, the most familiar use of pumpkins of C. pepo is for Halloween jack-o'-lanterns. Every autumn, the orange, round or oval fruits are carved into grotesque faces and illuminated from within by candles".
  18. Schultheis JR. 2006[19] : "Pumpkins are grown primarily for decorative/display purposes. The fruit are used to adorn the home and festivals and are one indicator that the autumn season has arrived. In addition, the primary use of pumpkins by US citizens is as jack o’lanterns. Jack o’lanterns are used for display or are carved at Halloween. The primary specie used for jack o’lanterns is Cucurbita pepo. C. maxima and C. moschata are also used, but to a lesser extent."
  19. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Connecticut Field' pumpkin has been grown in the USA since Colonial times and is still listed in some seed catalogues today."
  20. a b c d Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "Miniature pumpkins of C. pepo (e.g. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', and 'Baby Bear'), with fruits looking like 'Jack O'Lantern' but much smaller, have become popular in recent years. They are used for decoration and are edible as well."
  21. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): Hubbard. Fruit oval, tapering to curved necks at both ends, with a very hard rind and white seeds.
  22. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas hubbard_cultivar_robinson
  23. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): Banana. Fruit long, pointed at both ends, with a soft rind and brown seeds. (...)
  24. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: " (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): (...) Turban. Fruit turban-shaped as a result of fruit tissue at the blossom end not covered with receptacle tissue.".
  25. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ). p. 81: "'Turk's Turban' is a turban squash with very colourful fruits, which are used for decoration. It is consumed as a winter squash.".
  26. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): (...) Delicious. Fruit turbinate, shallowly ribbed, with a hard rind and white seeds.
  27. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: " (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): (...) Marrow. Fruit oval to pyriform, tapering quickly at the apex and gradually towards the base, with white seeds".
  28. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: " (...) Not all of the localized landraces of Cucurbita maxima that have evolved can be placed in the following informal classification scheme, which is based on Castetter (1925): (...) Show. Fruit large, orange, with a soft rind and white seeds".
  29. a b c Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 81-82: "Show pumpkins are grown for forage in India, where there is much diversity. In various countries, cultivars producing massive, orange fruits, such as 'Atlantic Giant' and 'Big Max', are cultivated for entry into contests for large fruits."
  30. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Acorn. Fruit small, top-shaped, furrowed, pointed at the blossom end."
  31. a b c Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "Table Queen', one of the few winter squash cultivars of C. pepo, was introduced in 1913 by the Iowa Seed Company. This acorn squash produces small, ribbed fruits which are often cur in half and baked. It is similar to a landrace grown by Native Americans before the Discovery. 'Table Queen' and its antecedents have a vining plant habit, but 'Table Ace' and other bush cultivars with fruit shape similar to 'Table Queen' have been bred."
  32. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80: "Three horticultural groupings of C. moschata cultivars are recognized in the commercial trade of North America: (..) Cheese. Fruit variable, but usually oblate with a buff-coloured rind."
  33. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) 'Cheese', one of the oldest C. moschata cultivars grown in the USA, has a flattened, ribbed fruit similar in shape to a cheese box, with buff-coloured rind and deep orange flesh. It was popular for canning and stock feed during the nineteenth century.
  34. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] )p. 71: "Fruit flesh is bitter in wild taxa and in most ornamental gourds of Cucurbita pepo".
  35. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Zucchini. Fruit long, cylindrical, with little or no taper."
  36. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "Dark green zucchini-type cultivars (e.g. 'Black Zucchini', introduced in 1931) are the most popular summer squashes in the USA, but lighter green cultivars (e.g. 'Cousa') are preferred in the Middle East. (...) Althought most zucchinis have green rinds, scientists have recently selected types with the B allele for yellow rind (e.g. 'Burpee's Golden Zucchini')."
  37. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Cocozelle. Fruit long, cylindrical, tapering away from the large blossom end, with a length to width ratio of 3.5 or more."
  38. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Vegetable marrow. Fruit short, cylindrical, tapering from the broad blossom end to the narrow peduncle end."
  39. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "Vegetable marrows, which are grown in the UK and elsewhere, are used at all stages of maturity. 'Vegetable Spaghetti', an unusual member of this group (...)"
  40. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Crookneck. Fruit elongated with a curved neck."
  41. a b c d Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Yellow Crookneck' and similar cultivars with a curved neck and hard, warty rind when mature are popular in southern USA. Cultivars of the straightneck group were probably originally selected from these crookneck squashes."
  42. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Straightneck. Fruit cylindrical with a straight, slightly constricted neck."
  43. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Yellow Crookneck' and similar cultivars with a curved neck and hard, warty rind when mature are popular in southern USA. Cultivars of the straightneck group were probably originally selected from these crookneck squashes. 'Early Prolific Straightneck', an important yellow-coloured summer squash, was introduced by the Ferry Morse Seed Company in 1938."
  44. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "For C. pepo, we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Scallop. Fruit small, flattened, typically with scalloped edges."
  45. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Vegetable Spaghetti', an unusual member of this (Vegetable Marrow) group, is said to have originated in Manchuria and was introduced into North American commerce in 1936. When mature, the yellow, oval fruit can be cooked intact, after which, it is cut open to serve the thin strands of flesh resembling spaghetti."
  46. a b Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "Scientists from Israel selected an orange hybrid cultivar called 'Orangetti' in 1986. In addition to having a higher concentration of carotenoids in the orange flesh, this cultivar differs from the viny 'Vegetable Spaghetti' by having a semi-bush habit."
  47. a b c d Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79-80: "A single allele plus modifier genes in C. pepo inhibit formation of the seed coat. Pumpkin cultivars such as 'Lady Godiva' and 'Triple Treat' have been bred to have 'naked seeds' that are tasty, tender, and nutritious, being high in protein and oil content. Since the seed coat is maternal tissue, cross-pollination of a naked seeded cultivar will not affect that trait until the next generation."
  48. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Longissima (Baton, Long Club, Italian Edible, Cucuzzi, Cucuzzi Caravazzi, Snake, Flute, Serpent) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: similar to Hercules Club but longer, edible at 1' long x 2" diameter but will grow to 6' long; from Italy. Similar: Hercules Club. 1885"
  49. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas kampyo_lagenariaDW1996
  50. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 78: "An Aztec candy called 'angel's hair' is prepared from the boiled stringy flesh".
  51. Long (coordinación) 2003[37] p. 213-215: "La última especie a la que haremos referencia es Benincasa hispida, cuyo centro de origen parece ubicarse en Indochina-Indonesia (ref 84: AC Zeven y JM De Wet 1982). Sus frutos tiernos son comsumidos en China y la India como verdura y los maduros se destinan a la elaboración de dulces (ref 85: HL Chakravarty 1990; T Walters 1989). La cubierta cerosa de sus frutos es también utilizada para la elaboración de velas al menos en India (ref 86: Chakravarty 1990). Al igual que se mencionó para Luffa acutangula, el cultivo de Benincasa hispida en América es sumamente restringido y al parecer únicamente es practicado para y/o por los inmigrantes de origen asiático".
  52. a b Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Chinese Fuzzy (Fuzzy Squash, Fuzzy Melon) - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit small (8-14" long x 3-4" diameter), weighing 5-15 lb, hairy with little waxy bloom, heavy yielder, 55-60 day maturity, eaten immature like summer squash. 1981."
  53. a b c d Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Swan (Goose, Speckled Swan, sometimes "Swan" is mis-applied as a synonym for Maranka) - Vendor: Park Seeds. Parentage: native Americans. Characteristics: large dipper shaped fruit with an enlargement near the stem-end of the neck, fruit 14-18" long with a 6" diameter bowl, rind mottled green, 100-120 day maturity. Similar: Indonesian Bottle. 1989."
  54. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Peru Sugar Bowl - Vendor: Seed Savers Exchange. Characteristics: 6" round fruit with a very short stem end neck. 1988."
  55. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Giant African Water Bottle - Vendor: Seed Savers. Characteristics: 24" tall fruit with swollen blossom end measuring 9" diameter and elongated neck measuring about 2" thick. 1991."
  56. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas kettleak_lagenariaDW1996
  57. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Birdhouse (Purple Martin House, Bird's Nest) - Characteristics: large bilobal with slender neck, thick rind, large blossom end bowl, 8-14" diameter, suitable for making birdhouse, 95-120 day maturity. Whitaker and Davis's Cucurbits, 1962."
  58. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Purple Martin (Martin, Bird's Nest, sometimes called Birdhouse which is applied to a wider range of fruit types) - Vendor: Rocky Ford Gourds. Parentage: native to Southeast U.S. where the fruit were used as outdoor nesting containers for purple martins. Characteristics: fruit with swollen blossom end measuring 12-16" diameter and a thick variably elongated neck, rind thick and hard. Speck's Gourds of the Southeastern Indians. 1941."
  59. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Pipe (Calabash Pipe, South African Calabash Pipe) - Characteristics: fruit with a curved gradually tapering neck, making it suitable to use as the curved bowl of a pipe, rind thick. USDA, BPI Circular, 1909."
  60. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Black Seeded - Vendor: Nichol's. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit measuring 12" long with a 5" long bowl measuring 7" wide and a 7" long neck measuring 2" wide, seeds almost black. 1990."
  61. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper (Siphon, Retort) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit with swollen blossom end, 8-12" diameter, thin elongated neck, rind thick and hard. Burr, 1865."
  62. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Apache - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with neck to 1' long; from Apache tribe in Arizona. 1994."
  63. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Extra Long Handled - Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with thin neck 4-6' long. Summit's Gourds in Your Garden, 1998."
  64. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Long Handled - Vendor: Gleckler's. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with thin neck 3-4' long, bowl 4-8" diameter. 1993."
  65. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Miniature - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with neck 4-6" long, bowl 2-3" diameter. 1996."
  66. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, O'odham - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit measuring 8-18" long; from Tohono O'odham Nation at Topawa. 1996."
  67. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Santo Domingo - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: short handled dipper with medium to large bowl; from Santo Domingo tribe, New Mexico. 1994."
  68. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Short Handled - Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with relatively thick neck measuring about 8" long. Summit, 1998."
  69. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, South Seas Island - Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with neck 16" long, bowl 6" diameter, rind green with white spots. 1988."
  70. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Dipper, Tarahumara - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Parentage: from Barranca del Cobre, Mexico. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit. 2000."
  71. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Straightneck Wren House - Vendor: Rocky Ford Gourds. Characteristics: dipper to pear-shaped fruit with 6" wide bowl and 1" wide neck. 2000."
  72. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Yaqui Deer Dance Rattle - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: pear, to short handled, dipper shaped; from Sonora, Mexico. 1994."
  73. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas maranka_lagenariaDW1996
  74. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Penis Sheath - Characteristics: club shaped fruit, seeds relatively small, almost square instead of rectangular; ancient landrace from New Guinea. Heiser's The Gourd Book, 1979."
  75. Long (coordinación) 2003[37] p. 208 . "Sus frutos carnosos con una sola semilla de testa suave no permiten su conservación (...)"
  76. Long (coordinación) 2003[37] p.209 "El chayote es usado fundamentalmente como alimento humano. Los frutos, tallos y hojas tiernas, así como las porciones tuberizadas de las raíces adventicias, han sido y son consumidos como verdura, tanto solos y simplemente hervidos, como formando parte de numerosos guisos. Los frutos, por su suavidad, se han empleado para dar cuerpo a alimentos infantiles, jugos, salsas y pastas, mientras que los tallos, por su flexibilidad y resistencia, han sido destinados a la fabricación artesanal de cestería y sombreros(ref 51: LE Newstrom 1986)."
  77. Long (coordinación) 2003[37] p. 210. "La segunda especie cultivada del género Sechium es S. tacaco llamado precisamente "tacaco" en Costa Rica, único país en donde se sabe que ha sido y es cultivado y en donde sus frutos son empleados como verdura principalmente en un guiso tradicional de ese país llamado "olla de carne" (ref 56: J Morales-Alistún. 1991. Morfología de Sechium tacaco (Pitt.) C. Jeffrey, Cucurbitaceae. M. Sc. Univ. de Costa Rica.).
  78. Long (coordinación) 2003[37] p. 214. "Momordica charantia debió ser introducida en América muy tempranamente, pues se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en los trópicos del Nuevo Mundo y ya puede considerarse como una planta verdaderamente naturalizada en estas regiones del mundo (ref. 80: JVA Dieterle, 1976; C Jeffrey (inédito); C Jeffrey y B Trujillo, 1983; R Lira, 1988). En contraste con la diversidad de usos y el manejo a que esta especie es sometida en su área de origen, en América es considerada en el mejor de los casos como una planta medicinal, y lo único que se consume ocasionalmente (principalmente por los niños de las comunidades campesinas) es la cubierta carnosa, roja y de sabor dulce de sus semillas."
  79. a b c Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) (Hablando de los horticultural groups de Cucurbita moschata) p. 80. These groups do not encompass all of the fruit types that have evolved in tropical America (e.g. calabaza landraces) and Asia. For example, Colombian landraces have small fruits with dark seeds, and Japanese cultivars (e.g. 'Chirimen', 'Kikuza') often have warty and wrinkled fruits.
  80. a b DigtheDirt[70] ) "Botanical name: Cucurbita mixta 'Japanese Pie'. Common name: winter squash Also known as (nippon island)". http://www.digthedirt.com/plants/52231-winter-squash-and-pumpkins-cucurbita-mixta-japanese-pie
  81. a b c d DigtheDirt[70] ) "Botanical name: Cucurbita mixta 'Cushaw White'. Common name: cushaw squash. Also known as (jonathan pumpkin, white salem pumpkin)". http://www.digthedirt.com/plants/52051-winter-squash-and-pumpkins-cucurbita-mixta-cushaw-white
  82. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Apple (Early Apple, Apple Squash) - Vendor: Hovey. Characteristics: fruit obtusely conical to spherical, less than 3" diameter, rind pale yellow to white. 1847."
  83. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Autumn Wings (Swan) - Vendor: Rupp Seeds. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with bowl measuring 2 1/2 - 3" in diameter and a narrow neck up to 8" long; rind multicolored, warted, and "winged" (ridged); 100 day maturity. 2000."
  84. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Bell (Bishop's Mitre of 1866) - Characteristics: fruit bell shaped, 3.5" long x 3.5" diameter at widest point near blossom end, obscurely ridged, rind yellow flecked with green patches. Bailey's The Garden of Gourds, 1937."
  85. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Pear, Bicolor (Ringed Pear) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: like Striped Pear but the stem end half is striped in shades of yellow and the blossom end in greens; Ringed Pear is a variant where the green portion forms only a rind instead of covering half the fruit. Similar: Striped Pear. 1885."
  86. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Bell, Big - Characteristics: fruit shaped similar to Bell but larger, 4-6" long, surface smooth or somewhat warty, rind cream colored or green. Bailey, 1937."
  87. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Brazilian Sugar (Brazilian, Brazilian Sugar Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit oval, 5-6" long x 4-5" diameter, obscurely ribbed, warty, rind orange, flesh yellow. 1885."
  88. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Crown of Thorns (Finger, Holy Gourd, Sugar Bowl) - Characteristics: fruit spherical to oblong, about 5" diameter, with five pairs of finger-shaped protuberances extending from the ridges at the stem end freely out towards the blossom end, surface typically smooth but sometimes warty, rind white to yellow. Bailey, 1937."
  89. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Der Wing - Vendor: Burpee. Characteristics: fruit oval, 5-6" long x 2.5-3" diameter, warty, rind white, flesh light yellow with greenish tinge; supposedly selected from Chinese germplasm. 1892."
  90. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Egg (Nest Egg, White Egg, Goose Egg) - Characteristics: fruit obovate, 2.5-3" long x 1.7-2.5" diameter at widest point near blossom end, rind typically all white but cultivars with green stripes may also be sold under this name. Burr's Field and Garden Vegetables of America, 1865."
  91. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Flat Striped (Broad Striped, White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit short cylindrical, 1.5-2.5"long x 3-4" diameter, flattened to concave at ends, somewhat angular around circumference, rind dark green with lighter colored stripes or marbling, flesh bitter. 1885."
  92. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Ladle (Scoop) - Characteristics: fruit elongated pear shaped, 6-8" long, often warty, rind often bicolored as in Bicolor Pear. Bailey, 1937."
  93. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Miniature (Miniature Ball) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit oblate to nearly spherical, 1.5" long x 1.5-2" diameter, rind dark green variegated with pale green stripes. 1885."
  94. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Orange (Orange Ball, Mock Orange) - Characteristics: fruit spherical to oblong, 3-4" diameter to 5" long, surface smooth, rind orange. Burr, 1865."
  95. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Pineapple (Early Pineapple, White Pineapple, White Turban) - Vendor: Burpee. Characteristics: fruit 8" long x 8" diameter, spindle shaped with 5 pairs of prominent projections around the median, some inclined outwards and others towards the apex or base, rind white; supposedly selected from Chilean germplasm. 1884."
  96. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Crown of Thorns, Shenot - Breeder: Agway. Vendor: Hollar. Parentage: selected from variant grown at Shenot Farms. Characteristics: similar to Crown of Thorns but rind is brightly multicolored; 90-100 day maturity. 1982."
  97. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Spoon (Bicolor Spoon, Small Spoon) - Characteristics: similar to Bicolor Pear except that the stem-end neck is elongated and may be curved. Similar: Bicolor Pear. Bailey, 1937."
  98. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Crown of Thorns, Striped - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: similar to Crown of Thorns but rind has green and white stripes. Similar: Crown of Thorns. 1985."
  99. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Pear, Striped - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: like White Pear but rind is dark green with lighter colored stripes. Similar: White Pear. 1885"
  100. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Warty (Orange Warted, Warty Hardhead, Warty Fancy Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: Fruit oblate to spherical to short oblong, 3-4" diameter, covered with numerous round protuberances or warts, rind orange, green, or rarely white, sometimes striped. 1885."
  101. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Ball, White - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: similar to Yellow Ball but with white rind. Similar: Yellow Ball. 1995."
  102. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Pear, White - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit pear shaped, 3-5" long, surface smooth, rind white. 1885."
  103. Decker-Walters (1996[60] ): "Ball, Yellow - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: rind dull yellow. Similar: Apple. 1982."
  104. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Delicata', another winter squash, was introduced by the Peter Hendersn Company in 1894 and is still grown today. The cylindrical fruits, which are cream-coloured with green stripes, are of good culinary quality."
  105. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Caserta' (was introduced) by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in 1949. They are popular summer squashes with striped fruits. 'Caserta' produces a high proportion of female flowers early in the season, one reason for its use as the maternal parent of F1 hybrid cultivars."
  106. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 77: "Some summer squash cultivars, e. g., the vegetable marrows (C. pepo), are consumed when almost mature. In the Middle East, nearly mature fruits of 'Cousa' (nota: Kousa?) are stuffed with meat and other ingredients, then baked." PERO más adelante lo trata como si fuera del grupo zucchini, p. 78: "Dark green zucchini-type cultivars (e.g. 'Black Zucchini', introduced in 1931) are the most popular summer squashes in the USA, but lighter green cultivars (e.g. 'Cousa') are preferred in the Middle East".
  107. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Cocozelle' was introduced by the Asgrow Seed Company in 1934, (...) they are popular summer squashes with striped fruits."
  108. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "'Yellow Crookneck' and similar cultivars with a curved neck and hard, warty rind when mature are popular in southern USA. Cultivars of the straightneck group were probably originally selected from these crookneck squashes. (...) 'Yankee Hybrid', a straightneck squash introduced in 1942, was the first F1 hybrid squash cultivar."
  109. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 79: "The fruit of 'White Bush Scallop' summer squash is similar to that depicted in anient European herbals. It differs from the medieval squash, however, by having a bush habit."
  110. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas Munro_y_Small_1997
  111. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80-81: "'Buttercup' is a high-quality winter squash. Its small, dark green fruit has a 'button', a protuberance at the blossom end where the mature ovary is not covered by the receptacle. This turban group cultivar was bred by A. F. Yeager and released in 1931. 'Buttercup' plants, like those of most cultivars of C. maxima, are large vines. Yeager later crossed 'Buttercup' with a bush-habit USDA plant introduction of C. maxima and selected for bush plants with 'Buttercup'-type fruit set close to the crown. The best of these selections was named 'Bush Buttercup'.".
  112. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas .3Dbuttercup_y_bush_buttercup_robinson
  113. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 77: "In Argentina, bush cultivars of C. maxima known as 'zapallito' are a popular form of summer squash".
  114. DigtheDirt: "Botanical name: Cucurbita maxima 'Victor', also known as (red warty thing)"[72]
  115. Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997[2] ) p. 80-81: " (...) Some cultivars (from C. maxima), such as the heavily warted 'Victor', were produced by hybridizing cultivars of different groups. The parentage of 'Victor' is believed to include hubbard and turban squashes (Tapley et al. 1937).".
  116. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Acoma Rattle - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: small discoid fruit measuring 4" long x 8" diameter; from Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico. 1994."
  117. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Apple (African Square, Big Apple) - Breeder: Rocky Ford Gourds. Vendor: MarketMore. Characteristics: apple-shaped, green mottled fruit measuring 6" diameter. 1999."
  118. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Banana - Characteristics: narrow cylindrical, club shaped fruit up to 8" long. American Gourd Society's The Gourd, 1994."
  119. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Basket, Hollar - Breeder: Hollar. Vendor: Rupp Seeds. Characteristics: similar to Bushel Basket but with smaller fruit, 120 day maturity. 2000."
  120. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Basketball - Characteristics: 6-10" diameter spherical fruit. American Gourd Society, 1994."
  121. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Blow Gun Kapok (Cofan Kapok) - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit 6" long with a 3-4" bowl, 150 day maturity; from Cofan people of the Amazon. 1996."
  122. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle (Common Bottle, Pilgrim, Dumbbell) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: bilobal fruit up to 18" long with the two unequal bowls separated by a constricted neck, the larger blossom end bowl contains the seeds. Burr, 1865."
  123. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Baby - Vendor: Holmes Seed Co. Characteristics: uniform bilobal shaped fruit measuring 2" wide x 4" long. Similar: Miniature Bottle. Adaptation: curing in dry storage takes several months. 2000."
  124. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Chinese - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: small bilobal, 5" diameter blossom end bowl, 100-110 day maturity. 1996."
  125. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Indonesian - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: 12-15" long bilobal with distinct elongated neck, stem end bowl 3-4" diameter & blossom end bowl 10-15" diameter; from Bali, Indonesia. 1996."
  126. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Large - Vendor: DeGiorgi. Characteristics: bilobal with large blossom end bowl up to 14" diameter. 1985."
  127. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Mexican - Characteristics: 12" or more long bilobal, smaller stem end bowl topped with a nipple. American Gourd Society, 1994."
  128. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Miniature - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: small bilobal, 1.5-6" long; used as baby rattle in Southeast Asia. 1996."
  129. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bottle, Sennari (Sennari) - Characteristics: small bilobal, 2-6" long, the smaller stem end bowl topped with a nipple; used as sake container in Japan. American Gourd Society, 1994."
  130. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Bushel (Bushel Basket) - Vendor: Gleckler's. Characteristics: large round, though usually wider than long, to somewhat conical fruit up to 24" diameter and 100 lb. Resistance: insects. Similar: African Giant. 1993."
  131. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Cannonball - Characteristics: small spherical fruit, 2.5-4" diameter. American Gourd Society, 1994."
  132. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Cheese - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit shaped like cheese squash. 1996."
  133. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Cheese Gourd - Vendor: Seed Savers. Parentage: USDA. Characteristics: flat, discoid fruit with 10 shallow grooves measuring 7" wide x 5" long, flesh orange. 1992."
  134. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Chinese Water Jug (Giant Bottle, Water Jug) - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: fruit with a 9-10" diameter bowl, 14-16" neck, very thick rind. 1995."
  135. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Corsican Flat (Courge Plate de Corse, Flat, Canteen, Bowl, Sugar Bowl) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: conical to discoid fruit, measuring 3-4" long x 6-15" diameter. 1883."
  136. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Cow Leg - Characteristics: high resistance to viruses; from Taiwan. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report, 1995."
  137. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Gooseneck, SSE - Vendor: Seed Savers. Characteristics: elongated fruit measuring 22" long with a thin neck and blossom end that gradually enlarges to 6" wide. 1999."
  138. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Hahre-hawan - Characteristics: ovoid medium sized fruit, thin pale green rind streaked with white. Naudin, 1859."
  139. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Hawaiian Mask (Hawaiian Ipu Nui) - Characteristics: large 12" bowl with a 6" stem end neck; old type from Hawaii. Whitaker & Davis, 1962."
  140. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Hopi Rattle - Vendor: Seeds of Change. Characteristics: small to medium sized discoid fruit measuring 3" long x 3-6" diameter; used as rattle since ancient times by Hopi tribe in Arizona. 1993."
  141. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Japanese Long (Japanese Bottle Siphon) - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: cylindrical fruit, 18"-6' long, with slight bulbs at each end; from Japan. 1996."
  142. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Kettle (African Kettle, Big Calabash of Africa) - Characteristics: large round, usually wider than long to conical fruit, sometimes with a short neck towards stem end, thick woody rind, large seeds. Naudin, 1859."
  143. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Knob Kerrie - Characteristics: long slender Club shaped fruit with knob, slight enlargement at stem end. Bailey, 1937."
  144. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Little Man - Vendor: Seed Savers. Characteristics: small round fruit measuring about 6" wide x 5" long. 1991."
  145. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Long Marmorata - Vendor: Nichols. Characteristics: club shaped fruit, 45" long x 3-4" diameter. 1995"
  146. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Longneck - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: thin fruit with tapered head, neck to 3' long. 1996."
  147. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Lump-in-the-neck - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: small bilobal with a continuation of the neck above the stem end bowl; from Southwestern USA. 1988."
  148. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Maranka (Dolphin, Dinosaur, Monkey, Cave Man's Club, Swan, Alley Oop, Alligator) - Characteristics: overall short handled dipper shaped fruit of medium size, 12-21" long with a curved neck, with convoluted knobby ridges on the bowl, rind is hard and relatively dark and shiny, seeds are large. Bailey, 1937."
  149. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Mayo - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: round bowl to 6" diameter with stout straight neck, thick rind. 1996."
  150. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Mayo Bilobal - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: medium sized, 10-12" long bilobal fruit with thick shell; from Sonora, Mexico. 1994."
  151. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Mayo Giant Bule - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: large ovoid shaped fruit, 20-24" long; from Sonora, Mexico. 1994."
  152. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Mayo Gooseneck - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: 1' long bilobal fruit with a curved narrow neck, the larger bowl, 6" diameter comes to a point, forming a nipple, at the blossom end; from Sonora, Mexico. 1994."
  153. a b Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Mayo Teardrop Bule - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: teardrop to slight bilobal shaped fruit. 2000."
  154. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Nigerian Saybo - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: large bilobal with a pointed end, bulbous neck. 1996."
  155. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Nigerian Saybo - Vendor: Seed Savers. Parentage: from Nigeria. Characteristics: elongated bilobal measuring 18" long with a 6" diameter blossom end bowl and a 3" diameter stem end bowl. 1991."
  156. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "O'odham Small Bilobal - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: bilobal fruit measuring 8-10" long; from Tohono O'odham Nation. 1996."
  157. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Oval Basket - Vendor: Sakata. Parentage: from Japan. Characteristics: oval fruit 10" wide x 17" long. 1991 (or before)."
  158. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Peyote Ceremonial - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: small bilobal 2-5" long; from Southwest USA. 1994."
  159. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Powder Horn (Courge Poire à Poudre, Powder, Penguin) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: elongated pear shaped fruit with a distinct and somewhat curved neck at stem end, 12-15" long x 3-5" diameter at widest point near blossom end; original from France. Burr, 1865."
  160. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Rainy Queen - Characteristics: slim, attractive fruit measuring 3.5-5' long. Facciola, 1990."
  161. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Small Gourd of Brazil - Characteristics: small bilobal fruit, 3-4" long with very hard rind, the small seeds are almost triangular. Naudin, 1859."
  162. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Small Gourd of Guinea (Microcarpa) - Characteristics: short bilobal fruit with oval seeds. Naudin, 1859."
  163. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Snake, Long Green (Elongata) - Characteristics: Club shaped fruit to 4' long, rind dark green with white streaks or specks; original from Egypt. Naudin, 1859."
  164. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Snake, San Juan - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: thin cylindrical fruit to 3' long which curves when grown on ground; from Southwest USA. 1994."
  165. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Snake, Wonder - Vendor: Gleckler's. Characteristics: club shaped fruit about 5' long; from India. 1993."
  166. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tarahumara Biolobal - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Parentage: from Chihuahua, Mexico. Characteristics: large bilobal shaped fruit. 2000."
  167. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tarahumara Canteen - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: pear shaped fruit which is quart size; from Chihuahua, Mexico. 1988."
  168. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tarahumara Chatos - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Parentage: from Barranca del Cobre, Mexico. Characteristics: flat, discoid fruit. 2000."
  169. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tarahumara Small Bule - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Parentage: from northwestern Mexico. Characteristics: small, round fruit. 2000."
  170. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tepehuan Canteen - Vendor: Native Seeds, Search. Characteristics: tear-drop shaped fruit; from Tepehuan village in Chihuahua, Mexico. 1996."
  171. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Tobacco Box (Snuff Box) - Characteristics: similar to Corsican Flat but smaller and more conical than discoid, sometimes with a slight taper at stem end. Similar: Corsican Flat. Naudin, 1859."
  172. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Trough - Characteristics: thick cylindrical fruit measuring 1-1.5' long. Bailey, 1937."
  173. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Trough, Bali Sugar - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: thick cylindrical fruit to 18" long x 8" diameter; from Bali, Indonesia. 1996."
  174. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Trough, Sugar - Characteristics: similar to Trough but with a more tapering end. Similar: Trough. Bailey, 1937"
  175. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Verma Wonder - Characteristics: relatively new cultivar producing many fruits on very small plants; from India. Facciola, 1990."
  176. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Warty, African - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit 6" diameter with small protuberances or warts over entire surface. 1996."
  177. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Warty, Hardshell - Characteristics: pear shaped fruit covered with small protuberances. American Gourd Society, 1994."
  178. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Early Green Long - Vendor: Sunrise. Characteristics: club shaped fruit, 1.5' long x 3-5" diameter, eaten young; from China. 1987."
  179. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Extra Long - Characteristics: fruit 30" to 3' long x 3" wide, flesh thick and tender; from southeast Asia. Facciola, 1990."
  180. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Kampyo (Yûgao) - Characteristics: club shaped fruit from which the Japanese prepare dried gourd shavings. Facciola, 1990."
  181. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Long White Prolific - Characteristics: Club shaped fruit up to 30" long, eaten immature at 16-20" long. Tindall's Vegetables in the Tropics, 1983."
  182. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Med-Long Calabash (Medium Long) - Vendor: Evergreen. Characteristics: club shaped fruit, 15" long x 4" diameter, yellowish green rind, eaten immature; from eastern Asia. 1981"
  183. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "New Guinea Butter Bean (New Guinea Butter Vine) - Characteristics: long cylindrical Club shaped fruit, eaten young; from New Guinea. Whitaker & Davis, 1962."
  184. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Pusa Summer Prolific Long - Characteristics: fruit 1.5-2' long, eaten immature, an improved cultivar that is prolific. Tindall, 1983."
  185. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Zucca (Sheep's Nose) - Characteristics: thick cylindrical fruit, 3-4' long x 8-10" diameter, thin rind, eaten immature. Similar: Longissima. 1938."
  186. Decker-Walters (1996[59] ): "Zucca Sicillano [Zucca Siciliano?]- Vendor: Siegers. Characteristics: similar to Zucca but smaller, 2-4' long x 3" diameter, eaten immature. Similar: Zucca. 1981."
  187. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Round - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit similar to Chinese Fuzzy but roundish to oval instead of cylindrical. 1988."
  188. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Chinese Preserving Melon (Courge à la cire, Chinese Winter Melon) - Characteristics: introduced to USA from China in 1892, large round to oblong fruit, 10-15" long, weighing 15-25 lb, waxy. 1892."
  189. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Giant - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit very large. 1985."
  190. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Green Long and White (Long White) - Vendor: Sunrise. Characteristics: fruit cylindrical, narrower than Chinese Preserving Melon, weighing about 20 lb, 90 day maturity. 1987."
  191. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Large Round - Vendor: Sunrise. Characteristics: fruit round to oblong, 20" diameter to 24" long x 12" diameter, rind light green covered with white wax at maturity, flesh fine grained, 90 day maturity. 1981."
  192. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Long Fuzzy - Vendor: Seed Saver's Exchange. Characteristics: fruit 2' long x 6" diameter, 90 day maturity. 1996."
  193. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Oblong - Vendor: Jordon Seeds. Characteristics: fruit 12 x 24" long, weighing up to 20 lb. 1998."
  194. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Small Chinese - Vendor: Sunrise. Characteristics: fruit round and small, maturing to 5-10 lb, flesh fine grained. 1987."
  195. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Super Soup - Characteristics: fruit very long, 39" long x 8" diameter, rind smooth and without waxy bloom, vigorous short day plant; from Taiwan. Facciola's Cornucopia, 1990."
  196. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Ton Qwa Round - Vendor: Evergreen. Parentage: from Japan. Characteristics: medium-sized round fruit weighing 15-20 lb., very productive. 1994."
  197. Decker-Walters (1996[61] ): "Tong Qua Large White - Vendor: Evergreen. Characteristics: very large fruit 30" long x 18" diameter, 120 day maturity. 1987."

Referencias[editar]

  1. 2004. The Ethnobotany. Florida ethnobotany. CRC Press. http://www.neiu.edu/~wacliffo/The%20Botany/C.pdf p. 251: "calabaza (derived from Arabic qar’ah ya´bisah, dry gourd, a name originally for Lagenaria, Spanish...)", p. 253: "Columbus’s arrival in the Caribbean in 1492 marked the Europeans’ first encounter with the genus Cucurbita. This New World genus produced fruits similar to those of cucumbers and watermelons that the Spanish knew at home, but the explorers noted the differences. Columbus called Crescentia, Cucurbita, and Lagenaria by the only name he knew -calabazas, and he probably found all three in Cuba (Sauer 1969). That he did find Cucurbita there is indicated by his comment that these plants were ‘‘more delicate and lacking the little spines that the plant of the calabaza [Lagenaria] has.’"
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997) Cucurbits.
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  12. Para C. ficifolia que se consumen inmaduros la cita es Ferriol y Picó (2008)
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  33. Mazamorra de calabaza (Cucurbita ficifolia): Deleita tu paladar con este postre clásico. http://peru.com/estilo-de-vida/gastronomia/mazamorra-calabaza-noticia-115437
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  35. Sicana odorifera como "calabaza melona" en México, introducida donde se la cultiva muy poco. http://www1.ecologia.edu.mx/publicaciones/resumeness/ABM/ABM.42.1998/acta42(43-77).pdf
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Bibliografía citada en las referencias[editar]

  • Ferriol M, Picó B. (2008) Pumpkin and Winter squash. En: J Prohens, F Nuez (eds) Handbook of Plant Breeding Springer New York. pp 317-349