Código Internacional de Nomenclatura para Plantas Cultivadas

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El Código Internacional de Nomenclatura para Plantas Cultivadas es el conjunto de reglas que controlan el nombre botánico de los cultivares, nombres útiles para la comercialización e indispensables en trámites legales sobre marcas y patentes, y también rige sobre sus clasificaciones en grupos de cultivares. Un cultivar es un subgrupo de plantas cultivadas que es distintivo, uniforme y estable en sus caracteres seleccionados, en relación a las razas de las que deriva, lo cual implica que debió haber un obtentor que trabajara en la creación del cultivar.

Además el Código ofrece información de interés legal, administrativo y comercial, como la lista de autoridades para el registro internacional de cultivares, las instituciones a las que se puede enviar muestras del cultivar para que se conserven como referencia, glosarios y otros datos.

No todas las plantas cultivadas entran dentro de la definición de "cultivar" o los esquemas de los grupos de cultivares, ni es útil clasificarlas como tales (véase Clasificación y nomenclatura de plantas cultivadas como un artículo más abarcativo sobre nombres de plantas cultivadas).

Resumen de las reglas[editar]

Entre las diferencias con el Código de Botánica se encuentra por ejemplo, que en la construcción del nombre de un cultivar, salvo excepciones, se usan idiomas diferentes del latín[cita 1] , se permite trasliterarlo (escribirlo en sistema de caracteres diferentes del original)[cita 2] , se permite corregir errores de ortografía del original[cita 3] , y se debe registrar en un Registro Internacional de Cultivares[cita 4] ; en la construcción de grupos se usan idiomas diferentes del latín[cita 5] y se permite su traducción a otros idiomas siendo todos nombres válidos del mismo grupo[cita 6] , todo el conjunto de caracteres que define al grupo de cultivares tiene que estar presente en cada cultivar del grupo[cita 7] , y cuando cambia la circunscripción (los caracteres que lo definen) siempre tiene que cambiar el nombre del grupo[cita 8] , además de que se exhorta explícitamente a que los cultivares se agrupen en cuantas clasificaciones diferentes sea necesario según caracteres de utilidad en contextos diferentes[cita 9]

El nombre de un cultivar empieza con el taxón botánico menos inclusivo al que pertenece (o si no al menos con el género) seguido del epíteto del cultivar entre comillas simples y con la tipografía del texto: Cucurbita pepo 'Connecticut Field' (hasta 1996 se aceptaba la alternativa Cucurbita pepo cv. Connecticut Field, hoy descartada)[cita 10] .

El nombre de un grupo es en mayúsculas, en la tipografía del texto, seguido del texto "Group" o su equivalente en otro idioma: Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Group.

Una planta que no se puede diferenciar de un cultivar en los caracteres que lo describen se considera parte del cultivar aunque su origen sea diferente.[cita 11]

Véase también[editar]

Clasificación de plantas cultivadas

Enlaces externos[editar]

Citas[editar]

  1. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 21.11. For a cultivar name to be established on or after 1 January 1959, its epithet is to comprise a word or words in any language but may not be entirely in Latin except as permitted under Art. 21.5, 21.6, and Art. 21.22 (see also Art. 21.14 and Art. 21.25). Ex. 19. The epithets 'Washington Bullatus', 'Loderi Red', 'Aurea Bennett', and 'Nani Baker' could all be established; "Aurea" is also a girl's name in Spain and "Nani" the Hindi term for the grandmother on the mother's side. Art. 21.12. Notwithstanding Art. 21.11, Latin words or words in Latin form may be used as new cultivar epithets when it can be demonstrated that they are current in a language other than Latin for example as terms, common phrases, personal names, and place names. Ex. 20. Bicolor, campus, major, minor, museum, and peninsula are Latin words currently used in modern languages, Aurora Borealis, Corpus Christi, and Habeas Corpus are Latin terms that may be used as, or in, cultivar epithets. Ex. 21. "Caveat emptor", "nil desperandum", "noli me tangere", and "non sequitur" are Latin phrases used in modern languages that may be used as, or in, cultivar epithets. Ex. 22. Cicero, Claudia, Claudius, Gordianus, Julia, Julius Caesar, and Paulus are Latin personal names that may be used as, or in, cultivar epithets. Ex. 23. Africa, Bognor Regis, India, Londinium, Marston Magna, Mons, and Nova Scotia are place names in Latin that may be used as, or in, cultivar epithets. ".
  2. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) Art. 32.1. When a cultivar or grex name appears in a publication using a different language from that of its original publication, the epithet may not be translated (it may however be transliterated (Art. 33) or transcribed (Art. 34)). Ex. 1. The cultivar epithet for the kohlrabi Brassica oleracea 'Nichtschiessender' may not be translated. Ex. 2. A cultivar name with the epithet 'Owen Glendower' (a legendary person from Welsh history) may not have its epithet altered to 'Owain Glyndwr', even though the latter is the preferred spelling in the Welsh language. Note 1. Notwithstanding Art 32.1, when for marketing reasons a cultivar or grex epithet has been translated into a different language, the translated epithet is to be regarded as a trade designation (Art. 13.1). Ex. 3. For marketing purposes, Hibiscus syriacus 'L'Oiseau Bleu' might have H. syriacus BLUE BIRD as a trade designation in which case the name could be styled H. syriacus BLUE BIRD ('L'Oiseau Bleu'); Clematis BLUE ANGEL ('Blekitny Aniol'), and Cucumis sativus NOA'S FORCING ('Noas Treib') are to be considered trade designations since they have been translated from their original language."
  3. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 35.3. Notwithstanding Art. 35.2, an unintentional mistake in the original spelling (orthography) of a cultivar, Group, or grex epithet is to be corrected. Ex. 2. Rhododendron 'Sherbrook', registered with the International Cultivar Registration Authority for Rhododondron in 1983, was corrected by that authority to R. 'Sherbrooke' upon realization that the name of the place after which the cultivar was named has the latter spelling. Ex. 3. Philadelphus 'Deberoux' was corrected to P. 'Debureaux' on realization that the cultivar was named after Monsieur Gérard Debureaux (see The sport 29: 11. 2002). Ex. 4. Argyranthemum 'Qinta White' must not be changed to 'Quinta White' as the original spelling of the epithet was deliberate; the epithet of Calluna vulgaris 'Redgauntlet' must not be divided into two words as the use of a single word was intentional; Pinus sylvestris 'Häxguld' even though the derivation of the epithet was stated at the time of publication as being from the Swedish word for "witches' gold".".
  4. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Division IV. Art. 1. For the purposes of this Code, registration is the acceptance of a cultivar, Group, or grex name by an authority responsible for registering such names. 2. An International Cultivar Registration Authority is an organization appointed by the ISHS Commision for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration to be charged with the registration of cultivar, Group, or grex names as provided for by this Code. The act of registration is completed by publication of such names which also ensures their establishment where necessary (see Appendix I for a list of International Cultivar Registration Authorities)".
  5. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 22.4. In forming the part of a Group epithet associated with the word "Group" the Rules as in Art. 21.5-21.24 and Rec. 21A-K (excluding Rec. 21G), governing the formation of cultivar epithets shall apply (reading "Group" for "cultivar" throughout); however, with Art. 21.20, established practice should be followed where this does not cause confusion. Ex. 3. In vegetable crops such as Beta (beets), following widespread established practice, the name Beta Spinach Beet Group is to be regarded as acceptable. Ex. 4. The epithet Cumberland and Westmorland Purple Group would be acceptable (Art. 21.13)."
  6. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 32.2. When established in a language other than Latin, the epithet of the name of a Group may be translated. Only one such equivalent epithet may exist in each modern language. Ex. 4. F. sylvatica Purple-leaved Group (in English) may be translated as F. sylvatica Groupe à Feuilles Pourpres (in French), F. sylvatica Purpurblätterige Gruppe (in German), and F. sylvatica Gruppo con Foglie Purpuree (in Italian). Ex. 5. Brassica oleracea Brussels Sprout Group (in English) may be translated as B. oleracea Groupe du Chou de Bruxelles (in French) and B. oleracea Rosenkohl Gruppe (in German). Note 2. If a Group epithet is in Latin form (Art. 3.3), it may not be translated. However, an alternative Group epithet in a language other than Latin may be established under Art. 11.4. Recommendation 32A. 1. When publishing a new Group name which is adopted from an existing Group name in another language (Art. 32.2) it is strongly recommended that a reference is given to the publication where the original name was used. Ex. 6. Cucurbita Kabocha-Gruppen (in Swedish) was adopted from C. Kabocha Group with reference to Hanelt, Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (2001)."
  7. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 3.2. Criteria for forming and maintaining a Group vary according to the required purposes of particular uses. All members of a Group must share the characters by which that Group is defined. Ex. 1. In Primula, the cultivars 'MacWatt's Blue', 'Old Irish Scented', and 'Osborne Green' are best cultivated under similar outdoor conditions and have been assembled under Primula Border Auricula Group (see B. Hyatt, Auriculas 86. 1989). Ex. 2. Iris Dutch Group has been designated to include the complex of early flowering cultivars arising mainly from I. tingitana, I. xiphium var. lusitanica, and I. xiphium var. praecox (see International checklist for hyacinths and miscellaneous bulbs 301. 1991). Ex. 3. The cultivars of Festuca rubra have been allocated to three Groups, Hexaploid Non-creeping Group, Hexaploid Creeping Group, and Octoploid Creeping Group, each with a distinct set of characters (see R. Duyvendak et al., Rasen Turf Gazon 3:53-62. 1981)".
  8. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 3.5. When a Group is divided or when two or more Groups are united or when the circumpscription of a Group is otherwise significantly re-defined in such a way that the resulting Group no longer has the same circumpscription a new name must be given for the resulting Group(s). Ex. 11. In the example given above, Solanum tuberosum Maincrop Group and S. tuberosum Red-skinned Group may be united to form a re-circumscribed Solanum tuberosum Maincrop Red-skinned Group. Ex. 12. Tulipa Dutch Breeders Group and T. English Breeders Group were united into the newly circumscribed T. Breeders Group (see J. F. Ch. Dix, A classified list of tulip names 4, 1958). Ex. 13. Recent breeding programmes in Begonia have led to the recognition of separate Groups within the existing Elatior Group. In due course these may be given new Group names instead of being referred to the Eliator Group as currently circumscribed. Ex 14. In the 1950s, a number of Magnolia hybrids were developed by D. T. Gresham and these have been referred to as Gresham Hybrids or as the Gresham Group. The inclusion of these hybrids in such a Group is unsatisfactory, the Group name being merely a statement of origin with individual members not showing characters in common. Two distinct Groups of Gresham's hybrids have, however, been recognized as Svelte Brunette Group and Buxom Nordic Blonde Group, each of which has a distinct set of characteristics (see J. M. Gardiner, Magnolias 118-120. 1989)".
  9. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 3.4. A cultivar, plant or combination thereof that constitutes part of one Group might also be designated as belonging to another Group, should such assignments have a practical purpose. Ex. 10. Solanum tuberosum ‘Desiree’ may be designated part of a Maincrop Group and a Red-skinned Group since both such designations may be practical to buyers of potatoes. It may thus be written Solanum tuberosum (Maincrop Group) ‘Desiree’ in one classification or as Solanum tuberosum (Red-skinned Group) ‘Desiree’ in another, depending on the purpose of the classification used."
  10. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 14.1. Cultivar status is indicated by enclosing the cultivar epithet within single quotation marks. Double quotation marks and the abbreviations cv. and var. are not to be used within a name to distinguish cultivar epithets; such use is to be corrected. Note 1. Single quotation marks are generally effected typographically either by using (‘) at the beginning and (’) at the end of an epithet as used throughout this Code, or alternatively by use of the apostrophe (') or other demarcation devices such as (´) on each side of the epithet. Ex. 1. Iris ‘Cantab’, Iris 'Cantab', not Iris "Cantab", Iris cv. Cantab, or Iris var. Cantab. Ex. 2. Pinus sylvestris 'Repens', not Pinus sylvestris repens, Pinus sylvestris var. Repens, or Pinus sylvestris cv. 'Repens'. Note 2. Prior to 1996 the abbreviation "cv." preceding a cultivar epithet was permitted as an alternative to the use of single quotation marks. Whilst this Code no longer recognizes the use of such a designation, botanic gardens and other collections of plants are likely to continue to bear such an abbreviation on their plant labels until time as those labels are replaced.".
  11. Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009[1] ) "Art. 2.20. In considering whether two or more plants belong to the same or different cultivars, their origins are irrelevant. Cultivars that cannot be distinguished from others by any of the means currently adopted for cultivar determination in the group concerned are treated as one cultivar. Ex. 17. Some cultivars derived from branch sports of Pittosporum 'Garnettii' are indistinguishable and therefore belong to a single cultivar, even though these sports have occurred at different times in different locations. Pittosporum 'Margaret Trunbull', which originated in New Zealand, appears to be identical with P. 'John Flanagan' from Ireland. The International Cultivar Registration Authority for Pittosporum designated P. 'Margaret Turnbull' as the accepted name, with P 'John Flanagan' as a later synonym. Ex. 18. Dianthus 'William Sim' produces distinguishable mutants that by further mutation give rise to a range of variants, some of which are indistinguishable from D. 'William Sim'."

Referencias[editar]

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k «International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants». Scripta Horticulturae (International Society of Horticultural Science) 10:  pp. 1–184. 2009. ISBN 978-0-643-09440-6. http://www.actahort.org/chronica/pdf/sh_10.pdf.