Anexo:Platos típicos de la gastronomía de África

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Este es un listado de platos populares en la cuca de su madregastronomía de África:

Nombre Imagen Región Descripción
Acarajé Bahia acaraje.jpg Nigeria Bolas de alubias carilla peladas y fritas
Ahriche Marruecos Mondongo cocinado sobre brasas
Alloco Aloko.jpg Nigeria Banana frita servida con chile y cebolla
Amala Amala.jpg Nigeria Gachas de ñame
Asida Eating Asida.JPG África del Norte Masa cocida de harina de trigo con mantequilla o miel[1]
Attiéké Costa de Marfil Plato acompañante a base de mandioca[2]
Baba ghanoush Baba Ghanoush.jpg Levante mediterráneo Majao de berenjena con aceite de oliva y especias
Babute República Democrática del Congo Carne picada, curry y albaricoque
Bazeen Bazin.jpg Libia Masa de cebada con salsa de tomate, huevos, patatas y cordero
Bichak Marruecos Aperitivo relleno de tres tipos de maiz
Biltong BiltongStokkies.jpg Sudáfrica Similar al jerky. Tiras de carne cruda
Bobotie Bobotie-01.jpg Sudáfrica Carne picada especiada con topping de huevo
Brik Brikdish.jpg Túnez Repostería rellena
Briouat Moroccan food-02.jpg Marruecos Hojaldre dulce.
Bunny chow Quarter Mutton Bunny Chow.jpg Sudáfrica Conocido como "Bunny", un plato de comida rápida en pan ahuecado y con curry.
Cachupa Cachupa frita.jpg Cabo Verde Cocido de mote, frijoles y carne
Leche de camella HALIB.jpg África del Norte Leche de camella
Chakalaka Chakalaka.jpg Sudáfrica Relish vegetal
Chakhchoukha Chakhchoukha9.JPG Argelia Estofado de cordero, especias, tomates y pan plano.
Chermoula Chermoula tagine.jpg África del Norte Salsa con aceite, zumo de limón, limones en vinagre, hierbas, ajo, comino y sal, utilizada para marinar pescados
Cholent Chol 001.jpg África del Norte Plato de carne, patatas, alubias y cebada cocinado a fuego lento.
Codada amarela Angola Postre de huevos y coco
Couscous Couscous-1.jpg África del Norte Plato con sémola, vegetales y carne.
Delele Zimbabue Gombo preparada con bicarbonato
Draw soup Nigeria Sopa de okra con semillas de calabaza
Duqqa Dukkah.jpg Egipto Un dip de hierbas y especias.
Echicha Plastic bowl full of echicha.jpg Nigeria Yuca, guandul y aceite de palma
Fatteh فتّة باللوز و السّمن.jpg Levante Khubz con yogurt, garbanzos y aceite de oliva
Feijoada Feijoada 01.jpg Angola Estofado de alubias, ternera y cerdo.
Fesikh Egipto Lisas fermentadas y saladas
Fig roll Fig roll.jpg Egipto Repostería del antiguo Egipto relleno de pasta de higos.
Fit-fit Taita fit-fit.jpg Etiopía y Eritrea Desayuno típico
Freekeh 120px Levante Comida de cereales hecha a partir de trigo verde tostado. Es un plato de la cocina árabe popular en Levante, Península arábiga, Palestinian y Egipcia, pero también en África del Norte y aledañas[1] [3]
Frejon Nigeria Sopa (de Feijão, "alubia" en portugués) típica de Semana Santa. Coconut bean soup which is eaten especially during Holy Week by a selection of Christians, mostly Catholics, across the world. Countries where Frejon is popular include Brazil and Nigeria.
Frikkadel África del Sur Plato tradicional afrikaner de albóndigas horneadas o fritas con cebolla, huevos, vinagre y especias
Fufu Fufu in groundnut soup with fish.jpg África Oeste Boiled starchy vegetables like cassava, yams or plantains which are pounded into a dough-like consistency and eaten in small balls with a dipping soup or sauce.
Ful medames Ful.jpg Egipto Mashed fava beans with olive oil, chopped parsley, onion, garlic, and lemon juice.
Funkaso Nigeria A Nigerian dish of millet pancakes containing millet, butter and sugar.
Ga'at Ga'at food.jpg Etiopía and Eritrea A stiff porridge, made traditionally with barley flour,[4] though in many communities wheat flour is often used.
Garri West African A popular África Oesten food made from cassava tubers.
Gatsby (sandwich) Root44 3 cropped.jpg Sudáfrica A Sudáfrican style of deli sandwich very similar in content and method of preparation as a hoagie in the United States. It is mostly popular in the Western Cape province.
Gored gored Etiopía and Eritrea A raw beef dish that is typically cubed and left unmarinated.
Halva PistHalva.jpg Middle East Refers to many types of dense, sweet confections, served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, África del Norte, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish world.
Harira Harira oranaise.png Marruecos Sopa tradicional marroquí
Hawawshi Egipto Comida tradicional egipcia similar al Lahmacun.
Himbasha Himbasha.jpg Etiopía y Eritrea Pan regional[5] ligeramente dulce.
Injera Alicha 1.jpg Etiopía y Eritrea Un pan plano con levadura de textura muy esponjosa.[6] Plato nacional, existe una variante similar en Somalia (canjeelo o lahooh) y en Yemen (lahoh).
Iru 120px Nigeria Popular entre la población Yoruba, A type of fermented locust beans used as a condiment in cooking. It's similar to ogiri and douchi. It is used in cooking traditional soups like egusi soup, okro soup and ogbono soup.
Isi ewu Nigeria Plato tradicional hecho con la cabeza de una cabra[7]
Isidudu Zimbabue A pap dish made to simmer with pumpkin, curried cabbage and liver.
Jollof rice Jollof rice.jpg África Oeste También llamada 'Benachin', que significa "una olla" en idioma Wolof.[8] [9]
Kachumbari Kachumbari.jpg East Africa Ensalada de tomate y cebolla
Kebab Döner kebab.jpg Middle East A wide variety of skewered meals originating in the Middle East and later on adopted in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Southern Europe, South Asia and Asia Minor, that are now found worldwide.
Kedjenou Costa de Marfil A spicy stew that is slow-cooked in a sealed canari (terra-cotta pot) over fire or coals and prepared with chicken or guinea hen and vegetables
Kelewele Kelewele.jpg Ghana Plátano frito con especias
Kenkey Fante kenkey.jpg África Oeste A staple dish similar to a sourdough dumpling from the Akan, Ga and Ewe inhabited regions of África Oeste, usually served with a soup, stew, or sauce.
Kitcha Kita herb bread.jpg Etiopía y Eritrea Pan fino, sin levadura, algo quemado
Kitfo Kitfo.jpg Etiopía y Eritrea Ternera cruda marinada en mitmita (polvo de chili ) y niter kibbeh
Koeksister Koeksisters.JPG Sudáfrica A Sudáfrican syrup-coated doughnut in a twisted or braided shape (like a plait).
Konkonte Ghana A poverty food of Ghana made from dried and pounded manioc root. It is also eaten in the Caribbean.
Kuli-kuli Nigeria Comida Hausa a base de cacahuate y snack popular en Nigeria
Kushari Cairo koshary.jpg Egipto Hecho con arroz, lentejas, guisantes y macarrones con tomate en salsa y cebolla frita
Lablabi Lablabi.jpg Túnez A Túnezn dish based on chick peas in a thin garlic and cumin-flavoured soup, served over small pieces of stale crusty bread.
Lahoh LahohS.jpg Somalia Pan tipo panqueque esponjoso originario de Yibuti, Somalia y Yemen.[10] [11] También popular en Israel, introducido por judíos yemenitas[12]
Maafe Mafe SN.JPG África Oeste A stew or sauce (depending on water content) common to much of África Oeste. It originates from the Mandinka and Bambara people of Mali.[13] Variants of the dish appear in the cuisine of nations throughout África Oeste and Central Africa.
Makroudh Makrouds.JPG Túnez Pastas de dátiles y almendras
Mala Mogodu Sudáfrican A Sudáfrican food, Mogodu is a derivative of tripe served as a stew with hot pap usually in winter.
Malva Pudding Malva Pudding.jpg Sur de África A sweet pudding of Afrikaner origin, usually served hot with custard and/or ice-cream. It is made with apricot jam and has a spongy caramelized texture. It is often found on the dessert menu of Sudáfrican restaurants.
Mandazi Bowl of mandazi.jpg Este de África A fluffy fried bread snack, Mandazi is a form of fried bread that originated in Eastern Africa in the Swahili coastal areas of Kenia and Tanzania.[14] It is still popular in the region, as it is convenient to make, can be eaten with almost any food or dips or just as a snack by itself, and can be saved and reheated for later consumption.[15] [16]
Matbucha 2008 04 23 - Laurel - Sauce.JPG Marruecos Tomatoes and roasted bell peppers cooked together, seasoned with garlic and chili pepper.[17] The name of the dish originates from Arabic and means "cooked [salad]". It is served as an appetizer, often as part of a meze. In Israel it is sometimes referred to as "Turkish salad" (en hebreo: סלט טורקיsalat turki).[18]
Matoke Uganda A meal consisting of steamed green banana (or plantain) and is one of the national dishes of Uganda.
Méchoui Mechoui.jpg África del Norte Cordero asado entero a la barbacoa[19] popular en África del Norte
Melktert Melktert.jpg Sudáfrica Postre sudafricano
Merguez Merguez sausages.jpg África del Norte Salchicha muy especiada de cordero o ternera
Mesfouf Tunisian Masfouf.jpg Túnez Similar al cuscús con mantequilla
Moin moin MoinMoin London.jpg Nigeria A Nigerian steamed bean pudding made from a mixture of washed and peeled black-eyed beans, onions and fresh ground peppers (usually a combination of bell peppers and chilli or scotch bonnet).
Mrouzia IB tajine 02.jpg Marruecos Sweet and salty tajine with honey, cinnamon and almonds.
Msemen Marruecos Panqueues Amazigh de Marruecos.[20] [21] Son acompañamiento de un te, aunque pueden llevar verduras o carne.
Mulukhiyah Egipto The leaves of Corchorus species are used as a vegetable in Middle Eastern, East African, North African, and South Asian cuisine. Mulukhiyyah is rather bitter, and when boiled, the resulting liquid is a thick, highly mucilaginous broth; it is often described as "slimy," rather like cooked okra.
Ndolé Ndolé camerounais.JPG Camerún Plato nacional de Camerún[22] The dish consists of a stew of nuts, ndoleh (bitter leaves indigenous to África Oeste), and fish or ground beef.[22]
Nshima Nsima Relishes.JPG Central Africa A cornmeal product and a staple food in Zambia, Malawi and the Kasai Oriental and Kasai Occidental provinces of the República Democrática del Congo. It is made from ground maize (corn) flour known locally as mealie-meal. Nshima es muy similar al ugali or posho del East Africa, sadza of Zimbabue, pap of Sudáfrica and fufu of West Africa.
Obusuma Kenya A Kenyan dish made from maize flour (cornmeal) cooked with boiling water to a thick porridge dough-like consistency. In Luhya cuisine it is the most common staple starch.
Sopa Ogbono Nigeria A Nigerian dish made with ground ogbono seeds,[23] with considerable local variation. The ground ogbono seeds are used as a thickener, and give the soup a black coloration.[23] Besides seeds, water and palm oil, it typically contains meat, seasonings such as chili pepper,[23] leaf vegetables and other vegetables.
Owofibo Nigeria An oil soup made of blended tomato mixed with akun and palm oil.
Pakora Chilli Bites (Bhaji).jpg South Asia A fried snack (fritter) found across South Asia.[24] Pakoras are created by taking one or two ingredients such as onion, eggplant, potato, spinach, plantain, paneer, cauliflower, tomato, chili pepper, or occasionally bread[25] or chicken and dipping them in a batter of gram flour and then deep-frying them.
Pap Ugali and cabbage.jpg Namibia Porridge tradicional de maíz molido
Pastilla Bisteeya.jpg Marruecos Pastel de carne tradicional bereber.[26]
Phutu Sudáfrica Plato de maiz, tipo papilla grumosa o polenta) o porridge. It is cooked in cauldrons or potjies over an open fire, stirred with great care until a course consistency in texture is reached.
Potbrood Potbrood-001.jpg Sudáfrica Tipo de pan. A bread first made by the Boer settlers of what is now Sudáfrica. Potbrood was traditionally baked in a cast iron pot (also known as a Dutch oven) in a pit made in the ground and lined with hot coals.[27] Today potbrood is often made at a braai by packing charcoal or wood coals around a cooking pot.[28]
Potjiekos Ijzeren kookpot.jpg Sudáfrica Literally translated "small pot food", is a stew prepared outdoors. It is traditionally cooked in a round, cast iron, three-legged pot, the potjie, brought from the Netherlands to Sudáfrica in the 17th century and found in the homes and villages of people throughout southern Africa.[29] The pot is heated using small amounts of wood or charcoal or, if fuel is scarce, twisted grass or even dried animal dung.
Qatayef Ataef.jpg Egipto Postre árabe muy popular en Ramadán, dumplings dulces rellenos de crema, nueces o queso Akkawi[30] [31]
Sadza África del Sur y Este A fried snack (fritter) found across South Asia.[24] Pakoras are created by taking one or two ingredients such as onion, eggplant, potato, spinach, plantain, paneer, cauliflower, tomato, chili pepper, or occasionally bread.
Samosa Samosachutney.jpg Todo el continente Pasta horneada o frita rellena con patatas especiadas, cebolla, lentejas, guisantes, carne de pollo, etc.
Seswaa Botsuana A traditional meat dish of Botswana, made of beef, goat or lamb meat.[32] The fatty meat is generally boiled until tender in any pot, with "just enough salt",[33] and shredded or pounded.[34] It is often served with pap (maize meal) or sorghum meal porridge.[35] [36]
Sfenj Moroccan donuts-01.jpg África del Norte Donuts cooked in oil then soaked in honey or sprinkled with sugar.
Shahan ful ShahanFul.jpg África del Norte Un plato común en Eritrea, Etiopía, Sudán y toda la región, siendo generalmente servido como desayuno.. Se cree una importación de Sudán, it is made by slowly cooking fava beans in water that are then crushed into a paste, which is then served alongside a diverse variety of foods. It is typically eaten without the aid of utensils accompanied with a bread roll. It is popular during the Ramadan season and during the various Lents.
Shakshouka Shakshuka 011.jpg Northwest Africa A dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, chili peppers, onions, often spiced with cumin.[37] It is believed to have a Túnezn origin.[38]
Shiro Taita and shiro.jpg Etiopía and Eritrea A homogenous stew whose primary ingredient is powdered chickpeas or broad bean meal. It is often prepared with the addition of minced onions, garlic and depending upon regional variation; ground genjibre or chopped tomatoes and chili-peppers. Shiro is usually served atop injera, however, it can be cooked in shredded taita and eaten with a spoon, this version would be called shiro fit-fit.
Shish taouk Shish taouk.jpg África del Norte Marinated cubes of chicken are skewered and grilled.
Skilpadjies Sudáfrica A traditional Sudáfrican food, also known by other names such as "muise", "vlermuise" and "pofadder". The dish is lamb's liver wrapped in netvet (caul fat), which is the fatty membrane that surrounds the kidneys. Most cooks mince the liver, add coriander, chopped onion, salt and Worcestershire sauce then wrap balls of this mixture with the netvet and secure it with a toothpick. The balls, approximately 80mm in diameter, are normally grilled over an open charcoal fire and ready when the fat is crisp.
Sosatie Chicken sosatie.jpg Sudáfrica A traditional Sudáfrican dish of meat (usually lamb or mutton) cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate ("skewered meat") and saus (spicy sauce). It is of Cape Malay origin, used in Afrikaans, the primary language of the Cape Malays, and the word has gained greater circulation in Sudáfrica.
Suya Beefsuya.JPG África Oeste A shish kebab like food popular in África Oeste, originally from the Hausa people of northern Nigeria and Níger. Suya is generally made with skewered beef, fish, or chicken. The meat is rubbed-in with tankora, a dry spice mix containing powdered groundnuts, cayenne pepper, genjibre, paprika and onion powder, then barbecued.
Tabil Túnez A Tunisian spice mixture consisting of ground coriander seed, caraway seed, garlic powder, and chili powder. The term can also refer to coriander by itself.[39]
Tahini Tahini.jpg África del Norte A paste made from ground, hulled sesame seeds used in África del Norten, Greek, Turkish and Middle Eastern cuisine. Tahini is made from sesame seeds that are soaked in water and then crushed to separate the bran from the kernels. The crushed seeds are soaked in salt water, causing the bran to sink. The floating kernels are skimmed off the surface, toasted, and ground to produce an oily paste.[40]
Tajine ZnuTjn2a.jpg África del Norte A Maghrebi dish from África del Norte, that is named after the special earthenware pot in which it is cooked. A similar dish, known as tavvas, is found in the cuisine of Cyprus. The traditional tajine pot is formed entirely of a heavy clay, which is sometimes painted or glazed. Tajines in Moroccan cuisine are slow-cooked stews braised at low temperatures, resulting in tender meat with aromatic vegetables and sauce.
Tapalapa bread África Oeste A traditional bread of western Africa, mainly in Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea.
Tapioca pudding Tapioca pudding-3.jpg Widespread A sweet pudding made with tapioca and either milk or cream. Coconut milk is also used in cases in which the flavor is preferred or in areas in which it is a commonplace ingredient for cooking. It is made in many cultures with equally varying styles, and may be produced in a variety of ways.[41] Its consistency ranges from thin (runny), to thick, to firm enough to eat with a fork.
Thieboudienne Thieboudienne.JPG Senegal Made with fish, rice and tomato sauce, and may also include onions, carrots, cabbage, cassava and peanut oil.
Tomato bredie Sudáfrica A Sudáfrican stew, referred to in Afrikaans as 'tamatiebredie', normally made with mutton, is cooked for a very long time, and its seasonings include cinnamon, cardamom, genjibre and cloves as well as chilli. It is of Dutch origin.
Torta de Gazpacho Gazpachos Manchegos Requena's Style.JPG Argelia A type of torta, or flat bread.
Toum Toum.jpg Levante A garlic sauce as prepared in Lebanon, Levante, and Egipto similar to the European aioli. It contains garlic, salt, olive oil or vegetable oil, and lemon juice crushed using a wooden mortar and pestle.[42] There is also a variation popular in many villages, such as Zgharta, where mint is added, called "Zeit and Toum".[43]
Ugali Ugali and cabbage.jpg Grandes Lagos de África A dish of maize flour (cornmeal) cooked with water to a porridge- or dough-like consistency. It is the most common staple starch featured in the local cuisines of the eastern African Great Lakes region and África del Sur. When ugali is made from another starch, it is usually given a specific regional name. See also: Pap (food).
Umngqusho Widespread A Bantu dish with several variants.
Usban Usban.jpg Túnez A traditional kind of Tunisian and Libian sausage, stuffed with a mixture of rice, herbs, lamb, chopped liver and heart.[44] [45] This dish is usually served alongside the main meal of rice or couscous, often on special occasions.
Vetkoek Vetkoek with mince-001.jpg África del Sur Dough deep-fried in cooking oil and either filled with cooked mince (ground beef) or spread with syrup, honey, or jam.
Wat 120px Etiopía and Eritrea An Etiopían and Eritrean stew or curry that may be prepared with chicken, beef, lamb, a variety of vegetables, spice mixtures such as berbere, and niter kibbeh, a seasoned clarified butter. Wats are traditionally eaten with injera, a spongy flat bread made from the millet-like grain known as teff.
Waterblommetjiebredie Aponogeton distachyos - Waterblommetjies from tin.JPG Sudáfrica A stew made of meat, typically lamb, stewed together with the waterblommetjies (Aponogeton distachyos flowers, commonly known as Cape pondweed, Cape hawthorn or Cape asparagus) which are found in the dams and marshes of the Western Cape of Sudáfrica.
Yassa Yassapoulet.JPG Senegambia Plato marinado con cebollas y limón

Véase también[editar]

Referencias culonas[editar]

  1. a b Famous Everyday Dishes from the Medieval Arab World
  2. (Staff) (2002). Cote D'Ivoire Investment and Business Guide. USA International Business Publications. p. 60. ISBN 073974044X. Consultado el octubre de 2012. 
  3. Anissa Helou, "Freekeh", in Alan Davidson, ed., The Oxford Companion to Food
  4. ERITREAN COMMUNITY. S. 93.
  5. Warren, Olivia (2000). Taste of Eritrea: Recipes from One of East Africa's Most Interesting Little Countries. Hippocrene Books, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7818-0764-7. 
  6. Science of Bread: Etiopían injera recipe
  7. Edet, Laura. «Nigeria Recipes: ISI-EWU (spiced goat head)». Consultado el 20 de mayo de 2009.
  8. Wilson, Ellen Gibson (1971). A West African cook book. 
  9. «Jollof Rice». Whats4Eats. Consultado el 18 de septiembre de 2009.
  10. Little Business Women
  11. Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press: 2001), p. 113.
  12. Hatikva market — the other side of Tel Aviv
  13. James McCann. Stirring the pot: a history of African cuisine, p132. Ohio University Press, 2009ISBN 0-89680-272-8
  14. «Mandazi - The Congo Cookbook». The Congo Cookbook. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2009.
  15. Peck, Richard. «Swahili Recipes». Lewis & Clark. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2009.
  16. «Kenyan Cookbook». Expanding Opportunities. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2009.
  17. Matbucha Salad Recipe
  18. A Taste of Challah: A Comprehensive Guide to Challah and Bread Baking, Tamar Ansh, Feldheim Publishers, 2007, p. 150
  19. http://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/nom-commun-nom/m%C3%A9choui/68865 Plantilla:Fr-icon
  20. Kitty Morse. Cooking at the Kasbah. Chronicle Books, 1998. ISBN 081181503X. 
  21. Paula Wolfert. Moroccan Cuisine. Grub Street, 2004. ISBN 1904010903. 
  22. a b Brady, Emily (2008-11-05). «The Years of Living Nervously». New York Times. Consultado el 2008-12-07. 
  23. a b c Wright, Clifford A. (2011). The Best Soups in the World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 51. ISBN 1118109252. 
  24. a b Devi, Yamuna (1999). Lord Krishna's Cuisine: The Art of Indian Vegetarian cooking. New York: E. P. Dutton. pp. 447–466, Pakoras: Vegetable Fritters. ISBN 0-525-24564-2. 
  25. Arora, Ritu (2002). Healthy Kitchen: More Than 350 Oil Free Recipes. New Delhi, India: B. Jain publishers (P) Ltd. pp. 186, Bread Pakora. ISBN 81-8056-208-5. 
  26. Moroccan and Lebanese cuisine : Pastilla
  27. «Sudáfrican Bread Recipes». Consultado el 21 de mayo de 2012.
  28. «Potbrood in Sudáfrican Cuisine». Consultado el 21 de mayo de 2012.
  29. Stan Engelbrecht, Tamsen de Beer, Ree Treweek (2005). African salad: A portrait of South Africans at Home. Day One Publishing. ISBN 0-620-35451-8. 
  30. Sadat, Jehan (2002). A Woman of Egipto. Simon & Schuster. p. 48.
  31. Abu-Zahra, Nadia (2000). The pure and powerful. Ithaca press. p. 290.
  32. http://books.google.com/books?id=EgCSa3qJCoUC&pg=PA70&dq=%22seswaa%22&hl=en#v=onepage&q=%22seswaa%22&f=false - This provides the base for an array of meat and vegetable sauces like seswaa (shredded goat or lamb)
  33. Culture And Customs of Botswana - James Raymond Denbow, James Denbow Phenyo C. Thebe - Google Books
  34. Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and ... - Sari Edelstein - Google Books
  35. Botswana - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture - Michael Main - Google Books
  36. Tourism Destinations Southern Africa - H Du Plessis - Google Books
  37. Claudia Roden, The new book of Middle Eastern food, p. 168
  38. International Inner Wheel Sfax, Nos recettes de tous les jours et jours de fêtes, p115
  39. Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. John Wiley and Sons. p. 572. ISBN 0-470-39130-8. 
  40. Ochef:What is tahini
  41. «Mango & Tapioca Pearls Dessert». christinesrecipes.com (27 de enero de 2010). Consultado el 6 September, 2012.
  42. Toum Recipe - Allrecipes.com
  43. Toum Recipe - How to Make Toum
  44. Gil Marks (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3. Consultado el 9 de febrero de 2012. 
  45. Clifford A. Wright (1999). A Mediterranean Feast. New York, New York: William Morrow & Co. pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-688-15305-4. Consultado el 9 de febrero de 2012. 

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