Anexo:Ateos

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Mapa porcentual de ateos y agnósticos a nivel mundial, según un estudio de Zuckerman (2006).

Una persona atea es aquella que niega la existencia de uno o más dioses[1] y quien en diferente grado defiende o manifiesta su ateísmo. Ser ateo, o abrazar el ateísmo, es negar que haya dios, o negar que haya dioses, o negar que haya alguna realidad que pueda llamarse «divina», o todas estas cosas a un tiempo.[2]

Ateos clásicos[editar]

Ateos fallecidos[editar]

Albert Camus (1913-1960).
El barón de Holbach (1723-1789).
  • Paul Henri Dietrich, barón de Holbach (1723-1789), hombre de letras, filósofo y enciclopedista francés, miembro del movimiento filosófico del materialismo francés; atacó el cristianismo como freno al avance moral de la humanidad. Fue uno de los primeros ateos reconocidos en Europa[25]
  • Paul Dirac (1902-1984), físico teórico británico, premio nobel (investigador del positrón y de la teoría cuántica),
  • Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872), filósofo alemán, postuló que el dios judeo-cristiano era meramente una proyección de las mejores cualidades de los humanos («la religión sólo se justifica si satisface una necesidad psicológica»). En su trabajo The Essence of Christianity mantiene que la religión y la divinidad son proyecciones de la naturaleza humana.[27]
  • Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991), transhumanista, fundador de la teoría de la ética situacional, pionero en el campo de la bioética
  • Friedrich Karl Forberg (1770-1848): filósofo clásico y escolar clásico[28]
  • Michel Foucault (1926-1984) : filósofo francés y teórico social por su análisis sobre el poder y el discurso. Conocido por sus análisis filosóficos revolucionarios[29]
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), neurólogo austriaco, padre del psicoanálisis, consideraba que la creencia en Dios surgía de un miedo inconsciente al padre biológico del paciente, y sostenía que la tendencia a vivir bajo las leyes de un dios o "padre creador" señalaban claramente la inmadurez del paciente al someter su vida a la dependencia de una figura paterna.[cita requerida]
Christopher Hitchens (1949-2011).
  • Robert Green Ingersoll (1833-1899), político republicano y orador estadounidense que abogó por el librepensamiento y se pronunció contra la superstición de las religiones, la esclavitud y la discriminación de la mujer.
  • Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956), médico, entomólogo, sexólogo e investigador estadounidense (autor del Informe Kinsey).
  • Ernst Mach (1838-1916), físico y filósofo checo-austriaco.
  • John Leslie Mackie (1917-1981): filósofo australiano especializado en metaética y propulsor del escepticismo moral. Escritor de The Miracle of Theism[37]
  • Michael Martin, filósofo estadounidense (La imposibilidad de Dios, 2003).
  • Harriet Martineau (1802-1876): escritora y filósofa inglesa, controvertida periodista, feminista y abolicionista[38]
  • Karl Marx (1818-1883), filósofo, sociólogo, economista político, periodista y revolucionario alemán, fundador del marxismo. Es muy famoso el final de su frase: «La religión es el suspiro de las criaturas oprimidas, el sentimiento de un mundo inhumano y el alma de las condiciones desalmadas. La religión es el opio del pueblo».
  • Joseph McCabe (1867-1955), escritor inglés, activista antirreligioso.
  • Henry Louis Mencken (1880-1956), periodista, editor y crítico social estadounidense.
  • Jean Meslier (1678-1733): sacerdote católico de Estrepigny. Tras su muerte, se descubrió que había escrito un testamento filosófico de 3500 páginas, llamado Sentido común pero comúnmente referido como El testamento de Meslier, promoviendo el ateísmo.[39] [40]
  • James Mill (1773-1836), historiador y filósofo británico, padre de John Stuart Mill; apoyaba los principios utilitaristas de Jeremy Bentham.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).
  • Madalyn Murray O'Hair (1919-1995), militante atea estadounidense, fundadora de Ateístas Estadounidenses (American Atheists), luchó por la separación de la Iglesia y el Estado; ganó el juicio que llevó a la Corte Suprema a prohibir la lectura obligatoria de la Biblia en las escuelas públicas.
  • James Rachels (1941-2003): filósofo estadounidense especializado en ética.[43]
  • Ignacio Ramírez (1818-1879) escritor, poeta, periodista, abogado, político e ideólogo liberal mexicano.
  • Ayn Rand (1905-1982), escritora y filósofa ruso-estadounidense, fundadora del objetivismo. Su filosofía y su ficción enfatizan su afinidad por el «individualismo» (autointerés racional) y el capitalismo.
  • Jean-François Revel (1924-2006): French politician, journalist, author, prolific philosopher and member of the Académie française.[44]
  • M. N. Roy (1887-1954), pensador y político indio, fundador de la escuela de filosofía Humanismo radical.
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970.
  • Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), matemático, filósofo, lógico, político y activista británico, divulgador de filosofía y Premio nobel de Literatura 1950. Acerca del tema del agnosticismo, escribió el ensayo Por qué no soy cristiano.
  • Theo van Gogh (1957-2004), director de cine neerlandés, crítico del cristianismo y el islamismo, víctima del fundamentalismo islámico.
  • Gore Vidal (1925-2012), novelista y ensayista estadounidense
  • Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), novelista estadounidense

Personas ateas vivas actualmente[editar]

  • Richard Dawkins (1941-), zoólogo y biólogo británico, creador del concepto del gen egoísta y del meme. Su libro más sobresaliente es El espejismo de Dios.
  • Daniel Dennett (1942-), filósofo estadounidense, figura principal en la biología evolutiva y las ciencias cognitivas, reconocido por su libro Darwin’s dangerous idea (La peligrosa idea de Darwin).
  • Karlheinz Deschner (1924-), crítico de la Iglesia e historiador alemán.
  • Ani DiFranco (1970-), cantautora y feminista estadounidense.
  • Theodore Drange (1934-): filósofo de la religión. Autor de Nonbelief & Evil: Two arguments for the nonexistence of God.[59]
  • Brian Eno (1948-), músico británico del género electrónico.
  • Dylan Evans (1966-): británico conocido por su trabajo sobre la emoción y el efecto placebo[60]
  • Stephen Hawking: físico, cosmólogo y divulgador científico. En 2010 escribió El gran diseño, su libro más controversial, que alude a la inexistencia de Dios.
  • Diane Keaton (1946-), actriz, directora y productora estadounidense de cine.
  • Myles Kennedy (1969-), vocalista de la banda estadounidense Alter Bridge.
  • Keira Knightley (1985-), actriz estadounidense.
  • Wim Kok: primer ministro danés entre 1994 y 2002.
  • Milan Kundera (1929-), escritor checo.
  • Paul Kurtz (1926-), filósofo escéptico estadounidense, fundador del CSICOP (Comité para la Investigación Científica de las Afirmaciones Paranormales) y del Concilio para el Humanismo Secular.
  • Seth MacFarlane (1973-) dibujante, guionista, productor, actor y director estadounidense, creador de las sitcoms animadas Padre de familia, American Dad y The Cleveland Show.
  • John Malkovich (1953-), actor, productor y director de cine estadounidense.
  • Barry Manilow (1946-), músico y cantante estadounidense.
  • Santiago Marín Arrieta (1954-) historiador y escritor chileno.
  • Todd McFarlane (1961-), caricaturista, escritor de historietas (Spawn), artista, empresario de los medios, diseñador y fabricante de juguetes (propietario de McFarlane Toys).
  • Colin McGinn (1950-): filósofo británico conocido por su trabajo en:philosophy of mind.[63]
  • Sir Ian McKellen, actor británico (Gandalf en El Señor de los Anillos).
  • Frank Miller, escritor y artista de cómic, creador de series como Sin City y Ronin
  • Jonathan Miller (1934-), médico, director de teatro, y periodista británico. Recientemente realizó un programa de televisión (Atheism: A Rough History of Disbelief, El ateísmo, una brutal historia de escepticismo).
  • Julianne Moore (1960-), actriz estadounidense.
  • Desmond Morris filósofo conductivista británico (códigos de señas entre personas y el origen animal de la conducta humana).
  • José Mujica (1935-), político uruguayo, actual presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay.[64]
  • Daniel Radcliffe (1989-), actor británico (Harry Potter).
  • James Randi (1928-), exmago y escéptico estadounidense.
  • Maikel García Díaz (1977-), Dibujante Cubano de Historietas y caricaturas.
  • Keanu Reeves (1964-), actor libanés nacionalizado canadiense. [cita requerida]
  • Matt Ridley (1958-), zoólogo, divulgador científico y periodista, apoyó abiertamente el libertarianismo en la política y el reduccionismo en la biología.
  • Richard Rorty (1931-), filósofo estadounidense, cuyas ideas combinan el pragmatismo con una ontología Wittgensteiniana que declara que el significado es un producto social y lingüístico del diálogo. Actualmente rechaza la dicotomía entre teísmo y ateísmo, y prefiere llamarse anticlerical[69]
  • Michael Ruse (1940-): filósofo de la ciencia británico, conocido por su trabajo sobre el debate entre creacionsimo y biología evolutiva[70]
  • Salman Rushdie (Bombay, 1947-), novelista británico de origen indio, amenazado de muerte por fanáticos religiosos musulmanes.
  • Fernando Savater (1947-), filósofo español.
  • John Searle (1932-): profesor de filosofía en la Universidad de Berkeley[71]
  • Peter Singer (1946-), filósofo y maestro australiano, que trabaja sobre los principios éticos desde una perspectiva utilitaria, controvertido por sus opiniones acerca del aborto y la eutanasia.
  • George H. Smith (1949-): filósofo libertario. Autor de Atheism: The Case Against God.[72]
  • Quentin Smith (1952-): profesor de filosofía de la Western Michigan University. Coautor del libro: Theism, Atheism and Big Bang Cosmology[73]
  • Steven Soderbergh cineasta (Sexo, mentiras y vídeo, 1989).
  • George Soros, multimillonario de origen húngaro.
  • Julia Sweeney (1961-) actriz y comediante estadounidense. Actuó en el programa Saturday Night Live, donde presentaba un unipersonal medio autobiográfico acerca de una mujer que encuentra el ateísmo: Letting Go of God (‘cómo «dejar ir» [abandonar] a Dios’).
  • Fernando Vallejo (1942-), escritor, biógrafo y cineasta colombiano. En 2007, Vallejo escribió un ensayo muy fuerte dirigido contra las religiones semíticas: La puta de Babilonia.
  • Eddie Vedder (1964-), líder de la banda de rock de los años noventa Pearl Jam y anarquista de izquierda.
  • Jesse Ventura (1951-) ex-luchador profesional estadounidense. Como gobernador 38.º de Minesota, apoyó la igualdad de derechos de las personas que no creen en Dios, declarando el 4 de julio de 2002, el Día Indivisible.
  • Paul Verhoeven (1938-), cineasta neerlandés (Instinto básico, 1992).
  • James D. Watson (1929-), premio Nobel de Medicina, codescubridor de la estructura del ADN
  • Lauri Ylönen (1979-), músico, compositor, cantante, escritor y productor finlandés.
  • Slavoj Žižek (1949-): sociólgo esloveno, postmoderno y crítico cultural[75]
  • Mark Zuckerberg creador de Facebook (una de las redes sociales más usadas de la actualidad).
  • Lemmy Kilmister (1945-) músico, compositor, cantante y bajista británico.
  • King Diamond (1956 -) danés, cantante de heavy metal
  • David Gilmour (1946 -): Inglés, guitarrista, compositor y vocalista de Pink Floyd.
  • Shirley Manson (1966 -): cantante británica-estadounidense de rock alternativo.
  • Roger Waters (1943 -): músico de rock Inglés, cantante, bajista, guitarrista, y compositor.

Véase también[editar]

Referencias[editar]

  1. «Ateo», definición en el Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española.
  2. José Ferrater Mora: Diccionario de filosofía (volumen A-D, pág. 259. Barcelona: Ariel Referencia, 1994. ISBN 84-344-0500-8.
  3. Demócrito y los átomos.
  4. «De los dioses no sabré decir si los hay o no los hay, pues son muchas las cosas que prohíben el saberlo, ya la oscuridad del asunto, ya la brevedad de la vida humana», en la obra Acerca de los dioses, transcrita por Diógenes Laercio; entrada «Protágoras de Abdera», en el Diccionario de José Ferrater Mora, pág. 2937. Barcelona: Ariel, 1994. ISBN 84-344-0500-8(oc)
  5. "This degree of radicalism Sydney could endure. But what of a man who had signed up as a communist immediately on his arrival, who was unashamedly an atheist, a realist where philosophers were expected to be idealists, who freely mixed with students when he was expected to meet them only in classes or, very occasionally, in their studies? Trouble was bound to loom ahead". John Passmore: 'Anderson, John (1893-1962)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [1] (accessed April 29, 2008).
  6. "Rendirse ante la ignorancia y llamarla Dios siempre ha sido prematuro y sigue siéndolo hoy."
  7. "Conversely, an absolute denial of God's existence is equally meaningless, since verification is impossible. However, despite this assertion, Ayer may be considered a practical atheist: one who sees no reason to worship an invisible deity". En James A. Haught: 2000 years of disbelief: famous people with the courage to doubt (pág. 276). Prometheus Books, 1996.
  8. «I was thoroughly irritated when Freddie Ayer, the philosopher who was at Christ Church with me, presented me with a book inscribed: “To my fellow atheist”», Lord Dacre: «I liked the elegant, frivolous life...», artículo en el diario Daily Telegraph, del 28 de enero de 2003, pág. 17.
  9. Multiple quotes from Bakunin substantiating his atheist views [2].
  10. "Feuerbach's book received criticism from two quarters: expectedly from Christian theologians but surprisingly, from the atheists Max Stirner and Bruno Bauer". Van A. Harvey, Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007 (accessed May 22, 2008).
  11. "[Beauvoir] remained an atheist until her death". Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986), The Internet Encyclopedia or Philosophy (Accessed April 21, 2008)
  12. "I cannot be angry at God, in whom I do not believe". Haught (1996), p. 293
  13. "Büchner's materialistic interpretation of the universe in Kraft und Stoff created an uproar for its rejection of God, creation, religion, and free will and for its explanation of mind and consciousness as physical states of the brain produced by matter in motion. His continued defense of atheism and atomism and his denial of any distinction between mind and matter (Natur und Geist, 1857; "Nature and Spirit") appealed strongly to freethinkers, but dialectical materialists condemned his acceptance of competitive capitalism, which Büchner viewed as an example of Charles Darwin's "struggle for survival". " 'Büchner, Ludwig', Encyclopædia Britannica Online (accessed August 1, 2008).
  14. David Simpson writes that Camus affirmed "a defiantly atheistic creed". Albert Camus (1913-1960), The Internet Encyclopedia or Philosophy, 2006. Consultado el 14 de junio de 2007.
  15. Haught, James A. (1996). 2,000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt. Prometheus Books. pp. 261–262. ISBN 1-57392-067-3. 
  16. Martin Gardner said "Carnap was an atheist..". A Mind at Play: An Interview with Martin Gardner, by Kendrick Frazier, Skeptical Inquirer, March/April 1998 (Accessed July 2, 2007).
  17. "Carnap had a modest but deeply religious family background, which might explain why, although he later became an atheist, he maintained a respectful and tolerant attitude in matters of faith throughout his life". Buldt, Bernd: "Carnap, Paul Rudolf", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 20 p.43. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  18. "Despite his atheism, Comte was concerned with moral regeneration and the establishment of a spiritual power". Mary Pickering: «Auguste Comte and the saint-simonians», en French Historical Studies, vol. 18, n.º 1, págs. 211-236; primavera de 1993.
  19. "But tragically, Comte's "remarkable clearness and extent of vision as to natural things" was coupled with a "total blindness in regard to all that pertains to man's spiritual nature and relations". His "astonishing philosophic power" served only to increase the "plausibility" of a dangerous infidelity. Comte was, once unmasked, a "blank, avowed, unblushing atheist". [...] Some of the Reformed writers were careful enough to note that technically Comte was not an atheist since he never denied the existence of God, merely his comprehensibility. Practically, however, this made little difference. It only pointed to the skepticism and nescience at the core of his positivism. The epistemological issues dominated the criticism of Comte. Quickly, his atheism was traced to his sensual psychology (or "sensualistic psychology", as Robert Dabney preferred to say)". Charles D. Cashdollar: «Auguste Comte and the american reformed theologians», en el Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 39, n.º 1, págs. 61-79, enero-marzo de 1978.
  20. "An atheist, he rejected the burden of original sin, and preached the fundamental 'moral goodness of man.'" Condorcet's Reconsideration of America as a Model for Europe, Max M. Mintz, Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Winter, 1991), pp. 493-506 (p. 505), published by University of Pennsylvania Press on behalf of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic
  21. Stated in Will Durant's Outlines of Philosophy
  22. Stated in Mary Bryden's Deleuze and Religion Page 157
  23. Derozio and the Hindu College
  24. a b Will and Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution, p. 183
  25. Will y Ariel Durant: The age of Voltaire: a History of civilization in Western Europe from 1715 to 1756, with special emphasis on the conflict between religion and philosophy (págs. 695-714). Nueva York: Simon and Schuster, 1965.
  26. "'There is no God, there is no life after death, Jesus was a man, and, perhaps most important, the influence of religion is by and large bad,' he wrote in the current issue of Free Inquiry, a magazine about secular humanism, a school of thought that emphasizes values based on experience rather than religion". Paul Edwards, Professor and Editor of Philosophy, Dies at 81, by Jennifer Bayot, The New York Times, December 16, 2004 (Accessed April 21, 2008)
  27. positiveatheism.org
  28. "An exponent of the Idealist school developed by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Forberg is best known for his essay Über die Entwicklung des Begriffs Religion (1798; "On the Development of the Concept of Religion"), a work that occasioned Fichte's dismissal from the University of Jena on the charge of atheism after he had published a corroborative treatise. Forberg also wrote further apologetical works in support of atheism". 'Forberg, Friedrich Karl', Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).
  29. [3],
  30. Will y Ariel Durant, The Age of Voltaire, 1965, pp. 617-22
  31. "As a philosopher he became a firm atheist and loud sceptic on issues of supernature and the afterlife. He concluded in The Illusion Of Immortality (1935) that this life was all there was, and that humankind should therefore make the best of it here on earth - a theory honed in The Philosophy Of Humanism (1949), which remains a classic in its genre". Jonathan Freedland, 'Obituary: Corliss Lamont', The Guardian (London), May 19, 1995, Pg. 14.
  32. "God", la canción atea de John Lennon
  33. "I am an atheist". [David Lewis, "Evil for Freedom's Sake," in Papers in Ethics and Social Philosophy, 101-127 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). p. 102]
  34. "A self-confessed "religious atheist", Lipton was fully engaged with his religious culture, taking his family to synagogue on Saturdays and teaching children at the Sabbath school. He did not think it was necessary to believe in God to recognise the value of religion in providing the individual with a moral compass". 'Obituary of Professor Peter Lipton, Inspiring head of Cambridge's department of History and Philosophy whose atheism did not impede his religious observance', Daily Telegraph, December 17, 2007, Pg. 23.
  35. http://www.mercaba.org/IGLESIA/Historia/Varios/Historia%20Iglesia%20Cat%C3%B3lica-Lenzenweger-16.pdf
  36. Kazimierz Lyszczynski's Web List of Atheists and Agnostics
  37. J. L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism, 1982.
  38. "She became increasingly skeptical of religious beliefs, including her own liberal Unitarianism, and her avowal of atheism in the Letters on the Laws of Man's Nature and Development (1851, with H.G. Atkinson) caused widespread shock". Martineau, Harriet Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2008 (Accessed April 15, 2008)
  39. Extractos de Moi Testament publicado como Superstition in All Ages
  40. Will and Ariel Durant, The Age of Voltaire, 1965, pp. 611-17
  41. Autobiography, Chapter 2
  42. Die fröhliche Wissenschaft, aphorisms 108 and 125 [4])
  43. In God and Moral Autonomy (1997), Rachels argued for the nonexistence of God based on the impossibility of a being worthy of worship.
  44. "Despite asserting that he had always loathed the family, both the one he was born into and the ones he had created, in the same year he published Le Moine et le philosophe (1997, "The Monk and the Philosopher", 1998), a book-length dialogue between Revel, the convinced atheist, and his son Mathieu Ricard, who had abandoned a potentially brilliant career in molecular biology research to go to live in Asia, to study Buddhism, and who subsequently became a Buddhist monk". David Drake, Obituary: Jean-François Revel, The Independent (London), May 10, 2006, Pg. 44.
  45. "Santayana playfully called himself 'a Catholic atheist,' but in spite of the fact that he deliberately immersed himself in the stream of Catholic religious life, he never took the sacraments. He neither literally regarded himself as a Catholic nor did Catholics regard him as a Catholic". Empiricism, Theoretical Constructs, and God, by Kai Nielsen, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul., 1974), pp. 199-217 (p. 205), publishd by The University of Chicago Press
  46. "My atheism, like that of Spinoza, is true piety towards the universe, and denies only gods fashioned by men in their own image, to be servants of their human interests". George Santayana, 'On My Friendly Critics', in Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies, 1922 (from Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations via credoreference.com (accessed August 1, 2008).
  47. "He was so thoroughly an atheist that he rarely mentioned it, considering the topic of God to be beneath dicussion. In his autobiography, The Words, Sartre recalled deciding at about age twelve that God does not exist, and hardly thinking about it thereafter". 2000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt, James A. Haught, Prometheus Books, 1996.
  48. Kimball, Roger (2000). «The World According to Sartre». The New Criterion. Consultado el 12-11-2006.
  49. Kemerling, Garth (27 de octubre de 2001). «Sartre: Existential Life». Philosophy Pages. Britannica Internet Guide Selection. Consultado el 12-11-2006.
  50. "While Shirley was (and is) a devout Catholic and so took the marriage as a commitment for eternity, Bernard, an atheist, had not done so when he made the wedding vows. Shirley says: "The Church and Bernard had a wonderful time debating all this. The theologians were so thrilled to be discussing it with a leading philosopher". " Stuart Jeffries, 'Profile: Bernard Williams', The Guardian, November 30, 2002, Saturday Review, Pg. 20.
  51. «Judaism: the atheist rabbi», artículo en la revista Time Magazine del 29 de enero de 1965.
  52. From a Freethought Radio podcast: Avalos: "I was a child evangelist and preacher, and I used to go around a lot of churches in Arizona specifically [...] it was coming along sort of in stages [...] slowly through high school, and so by the first year of college, I pretty much had realised that I am an atheist". [...] Annie Laurie Gaylor: "What made you an atheist?" Avalos: "Well I always say, reading the Bible did. The more I read the Bible and I tried to use the Bible to convert other people to Christianity, I realised, well I have to learn the arguments of the other religions I'm trying to convert. And the more I tried to learn the arguments and compare them to mine, the more I realised, I could make the arguments for their side just as well. Then it went into, you know, how do I know that anything I believe is true? And eventually I realised I have no evidence for any religion being true, and at that point, I was an atheist". FFRF podcast Fighting Words: The Origins of Religious Violence (mp3), June 2, 2007 (accessed April 25, 2008).
  53. "The reverend Dr Tom Ambrose was sacked yesterday by his bishop for being "arrogant, aggressive, rude, bullying, high-handed, disorganised and at times petty", as a Church of England tribunal put it. Twice, he even spat at parishioners. You might expect that, as an atheist, I might rub my hands over this clerical outrage". Julian Baggini, Thought for the day - BBC Radio Bristol, blog entry, April 11, 2008 (accessed April 22, 2008).
  54. " "I don't believe in God," [Julian] Barnes says in the book's opening line, "but I miss Him". It's a statement Barnes's brother, Jonathan, a philosopher and confirmed atheist, dismisses as "soppy". Jonathan provides a sanguine counterpoint to Julian's perpetual fretting, or what he calls "pit-gazing". Jonathan is resigned to the fact that one day he will cease to exist. Julian keeps looking for a loophole. He wouldn't mind dying, he admits, "as long as I didn't end up being dead afterwards". " Review of Nothing To Be Frightened Of by Julian Barnes, Ottawa Citizen, July 6, 2008, Pg. B2.
  55. "Some years ago, without realizing what it might mean, I accepted a dinner invitation from a Jewish colleague for dinner on Friday night. I should say that my colleague had never appeared particularly orthodox, and he would have known that I am an atheist". Simon Blackburn, Religion and Respect (pdf) on his website, August 2004 (accessed April 23, 2008.)
  56. Castro, un ateo que comulga con las raíces revolucionarias del Cristianismo
  57. The problem of consciousness meets "Intelligent Design", David Chalmers's blog ("As it happens, I'm an atheist").
  58. «Like everyone participating, I’m what's called here a "secular atheist", except that I can't even call myself an "atheist" because it is not at all clear what I'm being asked to deny» (‘como todos los demás que participan aquí, yo soy lo que se llamaría un ateo secular, excepto que yo ni siquiera me llamaría ateo, porque no es nada claro qué es lo que se me pide que niegue’). Noam Chomsky, discusión sobre «Beyond belief: science, religion, reason and survival» (‘más allá de la creencia: ciencia, religión, razón y supervivencia’), noviembre de 2006. Consultado el 21 de abril de 2008.
  59. "This book... presents the strongest case yet for atheism... Drange carefully analyzes and assesses two major arguments for the nonexistence of God: the argument from Evil and the Argument from Nonbelief". [quoted from the dustjacket description] Nonbelief & Evil: Two arguments for the nonexistence of God Theodore M. Drange, Prometheus Books, 1998, ISBN 1-57392-228-5
  60. "My kind of atheism takes issue with the old atheism on all three of its main tenets: it values religion; treats science as simply a means to an end; and finds the meaning of life in art". Dylan Evans, 'The 21st century atheist', The Guardian (London), May 2, 2005, Pg. 15.
  61. "I would certainly describe myself as a robust or uncompromising atheist..". House Philosopher: An Interview with AC Grayling, conducted and hosted by Amazon.co.uk (Accessed April 1, 2008)
  62. "Prof Harris, 54, an atheist who has advocated that corpses should become public property to make up for the shortage in transplant organs [...]". 'Is ANDi a miracle or a monster? Seven philosophers consider the ethical issues raised by the first GM monkey,' Daniel Johnson and Thomas Harding, Daily Telegraph, January 22, 2001, Pg. 04.
  63. On the filming of The Atheism Tapes with Jonathan Miller: "We had been friends for a number of years, and had discussed a great many topics, but we had never, except glancingly, ever spoken about religion. We knew about our shared atheism, but the subject didn’t seem to warrant much attention; in the Miller-McGinn world it was a non-existent topic. [...] It is often forgotten that atheism of the kind shared by Jonathan and me (and Dawkins and Hitchens et al) has an ethical motive". Atheism Tapes, Colin McGinn, on his blog. (Accessed April 1, 2008)
  64. http://diario.mx/Internacional/2013-03-19_a0d54a51/falto-mujica-porque-es-ateo/
  65. Piergiorgio Odifreddi. «Che fine ha fatto Dio?» (en italian). Consultado el 09-10-2006.
  66. The Sydney Morning Herald. «Facts and friction of Easter» (en english). Consultado el 23-03-2008.
  67. Amazon listing for Atheist Manifesto: The Case Against Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, by Michel Onfray. (Accessed March 23, 2008)
  68. In 'Is God Good By Definition?' (1992), Oppy presented a logical argument for God's nonexistence based upon an alleged fact of metaethics: the falsity of moral realism. If moral realism is false, then that is a fact that is incompatible with God's existence.
  69. Mendieta, Eduardo, Elogio a la herejía. El ateísmo radical de Rorty, en 'Ideas y valores', nº 38, diciembre de 2008, Bogotá, Colombia, ISSN 0120-0062, págs. 17-28, ver pág. 18 y 19]
  70. "Philosopher Michael Ruse has written: ' The God Delusion makes me embarrassed to be an atheist.' But in all the hype and embarrassment over geneticist Professor Richard Dawkins's anti-religious arguments, there is an important strand in his argument that has been overlooked: his views on morality". Richard Harries, 'It is possible to be moral without God', The Observer (England), December 30, 2007, Comment Pages, Pg. 25.
  71. Reviewing an episode of the Channel 4 series Voices: "On the one hand, Sir John Eccles, a quiet-spoken theist with the most devastating way of answering questions with a single "yes", on the other, Professor Searle, a flamboyant atheist using words I've never heard of or likely to again "now we know that renal secretions synthesize a substance called angiotensin and that angiotensin gets into the hypothalamus and causes a series of neuron firings". " Peter Dear, 'Today's television and radio programmes', The Times, February 22, 1984; pg. 31; Issue 61764; col A.
  72. "This book is a presentation and defense of atheism". Atheism: The Case Against God, by George H. Smith, Prometheus Books, 1989, ISBN 0-87975-124-X
  73. Smith has written numerous papers arguing for the nonexistence of God.
  74. "If I had to sum up my own atheism, I think I would have to say that it amounts to this: I have no interest in the supernatural. I also have no interest in what others believe about the supernatural as long as their belief does not involve intolerance of those who disagree with them". Robert Todd Carroll, Skeptic's Dictionary entry: atheism (accessed April 28, 2008).
  75. Atheism is a legacy worth fighting for (as reprinted in the International Herald Tribune), an editorial by Slavoj Zizek, The New York Times, Tuesday, March 14, 2006 (Accessed July 2, 2007).

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