ACOL

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Acol es el sistema de remate en bridge que, de acuerdo a "The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge"[1] , es "estándar en los torneos de Inglaterra y ampliamente utilizado en otras partes del mundo". Su nombre deriva del Acol Bridge Club, previamente ubicado en Acol Road en Londres NW6, en donde el sistema comenzó a evolucionar a fines de los 1920s.[2] De acuerdo a Terence Reese, sus principales diseñadores fueron Maurice Harrison-Gray, Jack Marx y S. J. Simon.[3] Marx por si mismo, escribiendo en el Contract Bridge Journal en diciembre de 1952, dijo: "...el sistema Acol fue ensamblado por Skid Simon y mi persona en su mayor parte hace 20 años atrás."[4] En otro relato, Marx y Simon...

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El primer libro sobre el sistema fue escrito por Ben Cohen y Terence Reese.[5] Skid Simon explicó los principios que yacían bajo el sistema,[6] y el sistema fue aún más popularizado en Gran Bretaña por Iain Macleod.[7] El sistema Acol está evolucionando continuamente, pero los principios subyacentes son mantener el remate tan natural como sea posible y preferir rematar un palo sobre el ST cada vez que sea posible. Es común en la Comunidad Británica pero raramente jugado en los Estados Unidos.

Estructura del sistema de remate[editar]

Como sistema de remate, Acol tiene las siguientes características:

  • Es un sistema natural: la mayoría de las aperturas, respuestas y redeclaraciones son hechas con al menos 4 cartas en el palo cantado, y la mayoría de los sin triunfos son hechos con manos balanceadas.
  • Es un sistema de palo mayor cuarto: only four-card suits are required to open 1 o 1, a diferencia del sistema Standard Americano and many other systems where five-card suits are typically required.
  • Es un sistema de aproximación for forcing: whether or not a bid is forcing (systemically requiring a response) depends on the previous bidding ("approach"). This is in contrast to level forcing systems, such as 2 sobre 1, where the level of the bid determines whether or not it is forcing.
  • It makes extensive use of limit bids: limit bids describe the hand so closely, in terms of Puntos honores (PH) and shape, that the one who makes the limit bid is expected to pass on the next round, unless partner makes a forcing bid.
  • Understanding and correct use of limit bids and forcing bids is fundamental to applying the system: all no trump bids below the level of 4NT are limit bids, as are all suit bids that merely repeat a suit already bid by the partnership; changes of suit may be forcing or not depending on the approach bids.
  • The level of the 1 ST opening bid influences other bids: the normal choice is between a "weak no trump" (12-14 PH) and a "strong no trump" (15-17 PH).

Variantes[editar]

Acol es un sistema no regulado. There is no Acol governing body and no single publication containing the "official" Acol (a diferencia de, por ejemplo, Standard American Yellow Card). It can be compared to a lenguaje viviente since it is liable to change at the whim of users. Las versiones principales en uso hoy en día son:

  • Acol: Acol desregulado Acol, desde el simple hasta el complejo, continúa en uso regular a través del Reino Unido. En cualquier momento dado la versión que esté más de moda será conocida como "Acol estándar" a pesar de que este término significará diferentes cosas a diferentes jugadores y está resultando cada vez más confundido con el Acol estándar inglés.
  • Acol estándar inglés (originally called simply "estándar inglés"). Desarrollado por Sandra Landy bajo los auspicios de la English Bridge Union (EBU), this variant was designed to facilitate the learning of bridge and to provide standardised guidance to novices, intermediate players and their teachers. This variant usa la apertura de 1ST débil (12-14 puntos). Simple conventions such as Stayman, Blackwood and Transfers are included at various stages in the learning process. It has been widely promulgated by the EBU and by EBUTA en particular, but the exact form is used mainly by those who have learned their bridge recently and those who taught them.
  • ACOL Benjaminizado (Benji): recognising that strong 2 opening bids are rarely used, the 2 and 2 openings are used to show weak hands containing long suits (under 10 PH and a 6-card suit). Very strong hands (8 bazas jugables) are shown by an opening bid of 2 which forces a 2 response allowing suits to be shown. The strongest hands (e.g., 23+ puntos or a game force hand) are shown by an opening bid of 2.
  • Reverse Benji: identical to Benji except that the 2 and 2 bids are switched in meaning. Una apertura de 2 es now the strongest bid as in Acol básico.
  • Acol con tres Dos Débiles: this variant is similar to Reverse Benji Acol except that the strong 2 bid is abandoned in favour of a third weak two (in diamonds). Así 2 es el único canto fuerte en este sistema. Abandoning the extra grade of strong bid means that 'Acol two' style hands cause some problems, either having to be opened at the one level or forced into the 2 bid.
  • Acol con Multi 2: this variant of Acol makes use la convención [[2 Multi]]. The 2 bid is used as in Acol estándar (23+ puntos). Various uses are made of the 2 and 2 bids, with traditional strong twos or Lucas twos being some popular methods.

Acol estándar[editar]

The following is a brief summary of the Acol estándar de los tempranos/medios 2000s.

Aperturas[editar]

Opening bids promise at least 12 puntoss en cartas altas (PH), or the equivalent in PH and shape, unless preventivaing. Apart from ST, opening bids guarantee the ability to make a rebid over any forcing response from partner. There are six special opening bids which are quite closely defined, and one wide-ranging opening bid:

  • Special opening bids:
    • 1 ST - Shows a balanced hand (4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2 or 5-3-3-2). Subject to partnership agreement, it may be either weak (12-14 PH), strong (15-17 or 16-18 PH) or variable (i.e., varying between weak and strong according to vulnerability). Limit bid.
    • 2 - Conventional game-forcing bid, promising game-going values (normally 23+ PH) and at least 5 bazas rápidas. Game forcing unless responder replies 2 and opener rebids 2ST.
    • 2 de cualquier otro palo - Strong two bid which shows a strong hand with at least eight bazas jugables and a 6-card suit (or two 5-card suits). Forcing for one round.
    • 2ST - Shows a balanced hand with 20-22 PH. Limit bid.
    • 3 a palo - Pre-emptive, normally seven or more cards in the suit bid (may be six at favourable vulnerability), weak hand (not more than 10 PH). Not forcing.
    • 3ST - Preventiva, shows a long solid minor suit and is called the 3 ST Gambling
  • Wide-ranging opening bid (made if too strong to pass and unable to make one of the special opening bids):
    • 1 a palo - Promises a minimum of 12 PH and a 4-card suit, 11 PH and a 5-card suit, or 10 PH and a 6-card suit. No forcing.

Respuestas de apertura a palo[editar]

  • pass - less than 6 PH
  • 2 of opener's suit - at least four-card support and 6-9 PH. Limit bid.
  • 3 of opener's suit - at least four-card support and 10-12 PH. Invites game if opener has requisite strength (14 PH or more). Limit bid.
  • 4 of opener's suit - at least five-card support for opener's major and 6-10 HCP, this is pre-emptive and to play.
  • 1 ST - 6-9 PH, denies ability to bid at 2 level. Not necessarily balanced. Limit bid.
  • 2 ST - balanced, 10-12 PH. Limit bid.
  • 3 ST - balanced, 12-15 PH. Limit bid.
  • 1 of a new suit - promises at least four cards in the suit bid, 6 PH hacia arriba. Forcing por una vuelta.
  • 2 de un palo nuevo (below 2 of opener's suit) - normally 5-card suit, at least a good 8 or 9 PH. Forcing for one round
  • Palo nuevo en salto - 5-card suit (or support for partner), at least 16 PH, Game force.

Nota: these last three bids may conceal 4-card support for opener's suit, whereas the three ST responses deny 4-card support for opener

Respuestas a 1 ST[editar]

  • 2 - Stayman. El abridor responde 2 sin mayor cuarto, 2 con un palo cuarto de y 2 con cuatro (niega cuatro ). Forcing por una vuelta.
  • 2 of any other suit - weak takeout, opener must pass. Some players make use of transfers.
  • 3 of a suit - shows a five-card suit, forcing for one round.
  • 2ST - 11-12 PH. invita a game if opener is maximum (i.e., for a weak opening ST, if opener has 14 or a good 13 PH).
  • 3ST - a jugar.
  • 4 - pregunta de ases. (Gerber)
  • 4, 4 - a jugar.
  • 4ST - invitación a slam, el abridor canta 6ST con un máximo.
  • 5ST - invitación a slam, el abridor canta 6ST, excepto con un mínimo. Nota: algunos lo juegan como invitación a 7ST; el abridor remata 6ST con mínimo, y 7ST con un máximo).

Respuestas a 2 ST[editar]

  • 3 - Baron. Opener bids his lowest four-card suit. Forcing. (Stayman may also be used as in responses to 1ST; i.e., 3 shows no 4-card major).
  • 3 of other suit - shows a five card suit, forcing to game.
  • Other responses as over 1ST.

Respuestas a 2 [editar]

  • 2 - negativa. Responder lacks the strength for a positive response. Unless opener rebids 2ST (balanced, 23-24 PH, which may be passed), the sequence is forcing a manga.
  • 2ST - fairly balanced, 8 or more PH. Forcing a manga.
  • 2 a palo - at least five in the suit, the equivalent of an ace and a king in high cards. Forcing a manga.
  • 3 a palo - Solid suit of at least six cards. Forcing a manga.

Respuestas a 2 a palo[editar]

  • 2ST - negativa. Responder lacks the strength for a positive response.
  • Palo nuevo a nivel - 8 or more PH, at least five in the suit. Forcing a manga.
  • 3 de apoyo - 5-8 PH, at least 3-card support. Forcing a manga.
  • 3ST - mano plana, 8-11 PH. No forcing.

Opener's suit rebid after one-level opening[editar]

Rebid own suit

  • Rebid of own suit at lowest level - minimum hand, at least a five-card suit, 12-15 PH, non-forcing.
  • Jump rebid of own suit - strong hand, normally at least six-card suit, 15-19 HCP, non-forcing but highly invitational.

Bid new suit

  • Bid of new suit at lower level than first suit - minimum hand, 12-15 PH, first suit has at least as many cards as second suit, non-forcing.
  • Bid of new suit at higher level than two of the first suit, but without jumping (a Reverse bid) - strong hand, 16-19 PH, first suit has more cards (at least five) than second suit, forcing for one round.
  • Jump in new suit - strong hand, 16-19 PH, first suit has at least as many cards as second suit, forcing for one round.

Support for responder

  • Simple raise of responder's suit - minimum hand, 4-card support, 12-15 HCP, non-forcing
  • Jump raise of responder's suit - stronger hand, 4-card support, 16-18 HCP, non-forcing
  • Jump to game in responder's suit - game values, 4-card support, 19 HCP, non-forcing

Opener's ST rebid after one-level opening[editar]

(The following bids assume a weak ST opening)

After suit response at one level the traditional rebids are:

  • 1ST - balanced, 15-16 HCP, limit bid
  • 2ST - balanced, 17-18 HCP, limit bid
  • 3ST - balanced, 19 HCP, limit bid

However, the modern approach modifies the ranges for the rebids thus:

  • 1ST - balanced, 15-17 HCP, limit bid
  • 2ST - balanced, 18-19 HCP, limit bid
  • 3ST - Often an Acol two type of hand prepared to play in ST.

After a suit response at two level the traditional rebids are:

  • 2ST - balanced, 15-17 HCP, limit bid
  • 3ST - balanced, 18-19 HCP, limit bid

The modern approach is to use the 2ST rebid as forcing and use 3ST as 15-17 with support for the minor that responder has bid (one option).

After the 2ST (forcing) rebid, either bid naturally or use an enquiry (3) to seek definition of the 2ST rebid.

Cuarto palo forcing[editar]

Un canto del cuarto palo al nivel de 2 por el respondedor es forcing por una vuelta, usualmente pidiéndole al abridor que remate sin triunfo con un ataje en el cusarto palo. Un cuarto palo al nivel de 3 es similar, pero forcing a manga.

Referencias[editar]

  1. The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, Brant Manley, 7ª edición, 2011, 633 páginas
  2. Acol Bridge Club Website.
  3. Reese, Terence y Bird, David, Acol en los 90s, Robert Hale Limited (London), 1990, ISBN 0-7090-5379-7, page 7.
  4. Hasenson, Peter (2004). 77 Publishing, ed. British Bridge Almanack. London. p. 490. ISBN 0-9549241-0-X.  54 Páginas.
  5. Cohen, Ben & Reese, Terence, The Acol Two Club: with an introduction by S.J.Simon, Leng, Sheffield, 1938. Este fue el primer libro de estudios de Acol, en donde sus autores sabiamente resdeñaron originalidad: "Nosotros hacemos un trabajo de información." Tenía un famoso Prefacio, "Actitud mental" por Skid Simon. — La segunda y subsiguientes ediciones fueron tituladas The Acol System of contract bridge. Joiner & Steele, London. — 2ª ed 1939; 3ª ed 1946, con 13 manos del Campeonato contra el Par de Waddington; 4ª ed 1949, con una selección de manos del International Series de 1949; 5ª ed [1956?], con una selección de manos de los eventos internacionales de 1955-56 y una Introducción por Guy Ramsey. La cuarta edición introdujo tres nuevos capítulo sobre remate competitivo, errores que deben evitarse, y 2 sobre 1 ST (la convención Marx).
  6. Simon S.J., Design for bidding, Nicholson & Watson (London), 1949.
  7. Macleod, Iain, Bridge is an easy game, Falcon (London), 1952.